Tuesday, January 1, 2008

AMBALA CANTT-MUNICIPALITY

HAPPY NEW YEAR - 2008

11 comments:

vikas bhatheja said...

To consolidate and amend the law relating to municipalities in the State of Haryana. BE is enacted by the Legislature of the State of Haryana in the Twenty- fourth year of the Republic of India, as follows:-

1. Short title, extent and commencement.- (1) This Act may be called the Haryana Municipal Act, 1973.

(2) It extends to the whole of the State of Haryana.

(3) It shall come into force on such date as the State Government may, by notification, appoint.

2. Definition.- In this Act, unless there is anything repugnant in the subject or context,--

(1) xxxxxx

(6) “committee” or “municipal committee” except section 2A, means a Municipal Committee or Municipal Council constituted or deemed to have been constituted by or under this Act.”

(7) xxxxxx

(8) “Deputy Commissioner” or Deputy Commissioner of the district” includes Additional Deputy Commissioner, Joint Deputy Commissioner or any 1[other officer not below the rank of an extra Assistant Commissioner] at any time appointed by the State Government to perform in any districts or the districts functions of a Deputy Commissioner under this Act:

(9) “Director” means the Director of Local Bodies appointed by the State Government;

(9A) ”District” means the district in the State of Haryana;

(9B) “District Planning Committee” means a committee constituted under Section 203B of this Act;

(10) xxxxxx

(12A) “Finance Commission” means the Finance Commission constituted by the State Government under articles 243I and 243Y of the Constitution of India;

(12B) “State Government” means the Government of the State of Haryana;

(13) xxxxxx

(15) “Municipal area” means the territorial area of a municipality as may be notified by the State Government and includes any territorial area which forms part of a municipality at the commencement of the Haryana Municipal (Amendment) Act, 1994;

(15A) “Municipality” means an institution of self-government constituted under section 2A which may be Municipal Committee or a Municipal Council or a Municipal Corporation;”

(16) xxxxxx

(19A) “Population” means the population as ascertained at the last preceding census of which the relevant figures have been published;

(20) xxxxxx

(22) “Rules” mean the rules made under this Act;

(22A) “State Election Commission” means the State Election Commission constituted by the State Government under articles 243K and 243ZA of the Constitution of India;

(23) xxxxxx

(26) “Ward Committee” means the wards committees constituted by the State Government under Section 34 of this Act;


2A. Classification and constitution of municipalities.—(1) There shall be constituted three classes of municipalities in accordance with the provisions of this section as specified below:-

(i) “Municipal Committee” for a transitional area with population not exceeding fifty thousand;

(ii) “Municipal Council” for a smaller urban area with population exceeding fifty thousand but not exceeding three lacs and

(iii) “Municipal Corporation” for a larger urban area with population exceeding three lacs, to be governed by a separate Act: Provided that a municipality under this section may not be constituted in such urban areas or part thereof as the State Government may, having regard to the size of the area and the municipal services being provided or proposed to be provided by an industrial establishment in that area and such other factors as it may deem fit, by notification, specify to be an industrial township:

Provided further that no military cantonment or part of a military cantonment shall form part of a municipality.

Explanation.—In this sub-section, “a transitional area”, “a smaller urban area” or “a larger urban area” means such area as the State Government may, having regard to the population of the area, the density of the population therein, the revenue generated for local administration, the percentage of employment in non-agricultural activities, the economic importance or such other factors as the State Government may deem fit, specify by notification for the purpose of this section.

(2) The State Government shall, by notification, constitute the municipalities and specify the class to which a municipality shall belong in accordance with the provisions of this section after observing the procedure as laid down in section 3:

Provided that the municipalities existing at the commencement of the Haryana Municipal (Amendment) Act, 1994 and listed as Municipal Committee or as Municipal Council in the Schedule to this Act, would be deemed to have been constituted and notified as such, under and in accordance with the provisions of this section:

Provided further that the State Government may, after giving a reasonable notice of not less than thirty days of its intention to do so, amend the Schedule, by notification and declare any Municipal Committee as a Municipal Council or any Municipal Council as a Municipal Committee.

3. Procedure for declaring Municipality.—(1) The State Government may, by notification, propose any local area to be a municipality under this Act:

(2) Every such notification shall define the limits of the local area to which it relates

(3) A copy of every notification under this section, with a translation there of in such language as the State Government may direct, shall be affixed in some conspicuous place in the court-house of the Deputy Commissioner within whose jurisdiction the local area to which the notification relates lies, and in one or more conspicuous places in that local area.

(4) The Deputy Commissioner shall certify to the State Government the date on which the copy and translation were so affixed and the date so certified shall be deemed to be the date of publication of the notification.

(5) Should any inhabitant desire to object to a notification issued under sub-section(1), he may, within six weeks from the date of its publication submit his objection in writing through the Deputy Commissioner to the State Government and the State Government shall take his subjection into consideration.

(6) When six weeks from the date of the publication have expired and the State Government has considered and passed orders on such objections as may have been submitted to it, the State Government may, by notification, declare [the local area, for the purpose of this Act, to be a municipality.

(7) The State Government may, by notification, direct that all or any of the rules which are inforce in any municipality shall with such exceptions and adaptations as may be considered necessary, apply to the local area declared to be a municipality under this section, and such rules shall forthwith apply to such municipality without further publication.

(8) Omitted

(9) Omitted

(10) A committee shall come into existence at such time as the State Government may, by notification, appoint in this behalf.

3A State Election Commission .—The Superintendence, direction and control of the preparation of electoral rolls for, and the conduct of, all elections to the municipalities shall be vested in the State Election Commission constituted under articles 243K and 243ZA of the Constitution of India in the manner as may be prescribed by rules.

Provided that the State Election Commission shall consult the State Government before announcing the date of elections so that the State Government may, if so requested by the State Election Commission, make available to the State Election Commission such staff as may be necessary for the discharge of the functions conferred on the State Election Commission under articles 243K and 243ZA of the constitution of India and this Act.

4. Notification of intention to alter limits of municipality.—(1) The State Government may, by notification, and in such other manner as it may determine, declare its intention to include within a municipality any local area in the vicinity of the same and defined in the notification.

(2) Any inhabitant of a municipality or local area in respect of which a notification has been published under sub-section (1), may, should he object to the alteration proposed, submit his objection in writing through the Deputy Commissioner to the State Government within six weeks from the publication of the notification; and the State Government shall take such objection into consideration.

(3) When six weeks from the publication of the notification have expired, and the State Government has considered the objections, if any, which have been submitted under sub-section(2), the State Government may, by notification, include the local area in the municipality.

(4) When any local area has been included in a municipality under sub-section (3), this Act, and except as the State Government may, by notification, direct otherwise, all notifications, rules, bye-laws, orders, directions and powers issued made, or conferred under this Act and in force throughout whole of the municipality at the time, shall apply to such area.

5. Notification of intention to exclude local area from municipality.—The State Government may, by notification, and in such other manner as it may deem fit, declare its intention to exclude from a municipality any local area comprised therein and defined in the notification.

6. Exclusion of local area from municipality .-- (1) Any inhabitant of a municipality or local area in respect of which a notification has been published under section 5 may, if he objects to the exclusion proposed, submit his objection in writing through the Deputy Commissioner to the State Government within six weeks from the publication of the notification and the State Government shall take his objection into consideration.

(2) When six weeks from the publication of the notification have expired and the State Government has considered the objections, if any, which have been submitted under sub-section (1), the State Government may, by notification, exclude the local area from the municipality.

7. Effect of exclusion of local area from municipality.—When a local area is excluded from a municipality under section 6 –

(a) this Act, and all notifications, rules, bye-laws, orders, directions and powers issued, made or conferred under this Act, shall cease to apply thereto; and

(b) the State Government shall after consulting the committee, frame a scheme determining what portion of the balance of the municipal fund and other property vesting in the municipal committee shall vest in the State Government and in what manner the liabilities of the committee shall be apportioned between the committee and the State Government, and, on the scheme being notified, the property and liabilities shall vest and be apportioned accordingly.

8. Power to abolish municipality.—(1) The State Government may, by notification, abolish any municipality declare under section 3.

(2) When a notification is issued under this section in respect of any municipality, this Act, and all notifications, rules, bye-laws, orders, directions and power issued, made or conferred under this act, shall cease to apply to the said municipality, the balance of the municipal fund and all other property at the time of the issue of the notification vested in the committee shall vest in the State Government and the liabilities of the committee shall be transferred to the State Government.

(3) Where any municipality is abolished under Sub-section (1) and subsequently the area comprising the municipality so abolished is declared to be a Sabha area under Sub-section (1) of Section 4 of the Punjab Gram Panchayat Act, 1952, the assets and liabilities referred to in sub-section (2) shall vest in the Gram Panchayats of the Sabha area from the date of its establishment under sections 5 of the Punjab Gram Panchayat Act, 1952.

Explanation ---- For the purposes of this sub-section, the assets shall include all arrears of taxes, tolls, ceases, rates, dues and fees imposed under this Act or any rule or bye-law which fell due to the committee of the municipality immediately before the date of its abolition and the same shall be recoverable by the Gram Panchayat as if these were arrears due to the Gram Panchayat.

9. Composition of Municipalities.—(1) The municipalities constituted under section 2A shall consist of such number of elected members not less than eleven as may be prescribed by rules.
(2) Save as provided in sub-section (3), all the seats in the municipality shall be filled in by persons chosen by direct election from the territorial constituencies in the municipal area and for this purpose each municipal area shall be divided into territorial constituencies to be known as wards.

(3) In addition to persons chosen by direct election from the territorial constituencies, the State Government shall, by notification in the official Gazette, nominate the following categories of persons as members of a municipality:--

(i) (Omitted by H.A. 18 of 1996)

(ii) members of the House of the People and the Legislative Assembly of the State, representing constituencies which comprise wholly or partly, the municipal area; and

(iii) members of the Council of States, registered as electors within the municipal area:

“Provided that the persons referred to in clauses (ii) and (iii) above shall not have right to contest for the election of President or Vice-President:

Provided further that the Executive Officer in the case of a Municipal Council and the Secretary in the case of a Municipal Committee, shall have the right to attend all the meetings of the municipality and to take part in discussion but shall not have the right to vote therein.

10. Reservation of seats.—(1) Seats shall be reserved for the Scheduled Castes in every municipality and the number of seats so reserved shall bear, as nearly as may be, the same proportion to the total number of seats to be filled by direct election in a municipality as the population of the Scheduled Castes in the municipal area bears to the total population of that area and such seats may be allotted to such wards having maximum population of persons belonging to Scheduled Castes :

(2) Not less than one-third of the total number of seats reserved under sub-section (1) shall be reserved for women belonging to the Scheduled Castes and such seats may be allotted to such rotation and by lots amongst the wards reserved under sub-section (1) :

(3) Not less than one-third (including the number of seats reserved for women belonging to the Scheduled Castes) of the total number of seats to be filled by direct election in every municipality, shall be reserved for women and such seats may be allotted by rotation and by lots to different constituencies in the municipality except those falling under sub-sections(1), (2) and (4) :

(4) Two seats in every committee shall be reserved for the persons belonging to Backward Classes which shall be allotted in such territorial constituencies as having maximum population of persons belonging to Backward Classes :

(5) The offices of Presidents in municipalities shall be filled up from amongst the members belonging to the general category, Scheduled Castes, Backward Classes and women by rotation and by lots in the manner prescribed :

“Provided that the office of President of Municipalities reserved for Scheduled Castes, Backward Classes or women shall be filed up from the members elected from the seats so reserved far them, as the case may be:

(6) The reservation of seats under sub-sections(1) and (2) and the reservation of office of the President other than the reservation for women under sub-section (4), shall cease to have effect on the expiration of the period specified under article 334 of the Constitution of India :

(7) The reservation of seats under sub-section (1), (2), (4) and (5) shall be reviewed after every decennial census :

(8) The reservation as enumerated in this section shall be given effect to through notification issued at the time of each election.

11. Term of office of members.—(1) The term of office of elected members shall be five years from the date appointed for the first meeting of the municipality.

(2) The term of the nominated member shall be co-terminus with the term of elected members.

(3) Omitted.

(4) When as a result of an enquiry held under Chapter XIV an order declaring the election of any member void has been made , such member shall forthwith cease to be the member of the committee.

12. Duration of municipality, etc.—(1) Every municipality unless sooner dissolved under any law for the time being in force, shall continue for five years from the date appointed for its first meeting:

Provided that a municipality shall be given a reasonable opportunity of being heard before its dissolution:

Provided further that all municipalities existing immediately before the commencement of the Constitution (Seventy-fourth Amendment Act, 1992 shall continue till the expiration of the duration unless sooner dissolved by a resolution passed to that effect by the State Legislature.

(2) An election to constitute a municipality shall be completed,---

(a) before the expiry of its duration specified in sub-section (1);

(b) before the expiration of a period of six months from the date of its dissolution:

Provided that when the remainder of the period for which the dissolved municipality would have continued is less than six months, it shall not necessary to hold any election under this section for constituting the municipality for such period:

Provided further that the first election to a municipality constituted after the commencement of the Haryana Municipal (Amendment) Act, 1994, may be held within a period of one year of its being notified as a municipality :

Provided further that elections to the municipalities where no elected body exists at the time of commencement of this Act may be held within a period of one year.

(3) A municipality constituted upon the dissolution of a municipality before the expiration of its duration shall continue only for the remainder of the period for which the dissolved municipality would have continued under sub-section (1) had it not been so dissolved.

13. Resignation of member of committee.—If a member of a committee wishes to resign his office, he shall submit an application in writing to the Deputy Commissioner. If such resignation is accepted, it shall be notified in the official Gazette on a date not less than fifteen days and not more than sixty days after the receipt of the said member’s application by the Deputy Commissioner whereupon the member shall be deemed to have vacated his seat :

Provided that if a member who has submitted an application to resign wishes to withdraw his resignation, he may apply to the Deputy Commissioner within fifteen days of the receipt by the Deputy Commissioner of his application to resign, and the application to resign shall then be deemed to have been withdrawn.

13A. Disqualifications for membership.—(1) A person shall be disqualified for being chosen as and for being a member of a municipality.

(a) if he is so disqualified by or under any law for the time being in force for the purposes of election to the Legislature of the State of Haryana:

Provided that no person shall be disqualified on the ground that he is less than twenty five years of age if he had attained the age of twenty one years;

(b) if he is so disqualified by or under any law made by the Legislature of the State of Haryana ;

(c) if he has more than two living children :

Provided that a person having more than two children on or upto the expiry of one year of the commencement of this Act, shall not be deemed to be disqualified.

(2) If any question arises as to whether a member of a municipality has become subject to any of the disqualifications mentioned in sub-section (1), the question shall be referred for the decision of such authority and in such manner as may be prescribed by rules.

13B. Restriction on simultaneous or double Membership.—(1) No person shall be an elected member of Committee, member of Legislative Assembly of the State or member of Parliament simultaneously.

(2) If an elected member of the committee is elected to the Legislative Assembly or Parliament, as the case may be, he shall cease to continue as an elected member of the committee from the date he is declared as elected to the Legislative Assembly or Parliament, as the case may be.

14. Powers of State Government as to removal of members.—(1) The State Government may by notification remove any member of a committee---

(a) if he refuses to act or becomes, in the opinion, of the State Government, incapable of acting, or has been declared a bankrupt or an insolvent by a competent court or has been convicted of any such offence or subjected by a criminal court to any such order as implies, in the opinion of the State Government a defect of character which renders him unfit to be a member;

(b) if he has been declared by notification to be disqualified for employment in, or has been dismissed from, the public service and the reason for the disqualification or dismissal is such as implies in the opinion of the State Government a defect of character which renders him unfit to be a member ;

(c) if he has without reasonable cause in the opinion of the State Government absented himself for more than three consecutive months from the meetings of committee;

(d) If he fails to pay any amount due from him to the committee within three months of the service of notice making the claim. It shall be the duty of the to serve such a notice at the earliest possible date after the amount has become due;

(e) if, in the opinion of the State Government he has flagrantly abused his position as a member of the committee or has through his negligence or misconduct been responsible for the loss, or misapplication of any money or property of the committee ;

(f) if he has, since his election or nomination become subject to any disqualification which, if it had existed at the time of his election or nomination, would have rendered him ineligible under any law for the time being in force regulating the qualifications of candidates for election or nomination, or if it appears that he was, at the time of his election or nomination subject to any such disqualification;

(g) if being a legal practitioner, he acts or appears in any legal proceeding on behalf of any person against the committee or on behalf of or against the State Government where in the opinion of the State Government such action or appearance is contrary to the interests of the Committee:

Provided that no removal of a member shall be notified unless the matter has been enquired into by an officer, not below the rank of an extra Assistant Commissioner, appointed by the State Government and the member concerned has been given a reasonable opportunity of being heard.

(2) A person removed under this section or whose election has been declared void for corrupt parties or intimidation under the provisions of section 272, shall be disqualified for election for a period not exceeding five years.

(3) Omitted

14A. Suspension of members.--- (1) The Director may, suspend any member of committee where –

(a) a case against him in respect of any criminal offence is under investigation, enquiry or trial, if in the opinion of the Director the charge made or proceeding taken against him, are likely to embarrass him in the discharge of the duties to involves moral turpitude or defect of a character ;

(b) during the course of an enquiry for any of the reasons for which he can be removed under section 14, after giving him a reasonable opportunity of being heard.

(2) Any member suspended under sub-section (1) shall not take part in any act of proceedings of the committee during the period of suspension and shall hand over the records, money or any other property of the committee in his possession or under his control –

(i) to president/vice-president, as the case may be ;

(ii) in case both the president and vice-president are suspended, to such person the Director may appoint in this behalf :

Provided that the suspension order except in criminal cases involving moral turpitude.

(3) Any person aggrieved by an order passed under sub-section (1) may, within a period of thirty days from the communication of the order prefer an appeal to the Government.

15. Filling of casual vacancies.—(1) Whenever a vacancy occurs by the death, resignation or removal or by the vacation of a seat under the provisions of sub-section (4) of section 11 of any member the vacancy shall be filled within six months of the occurrence of such vacancy.

(2) Every person elected or nominated, to fill a casual vacancy, shall be elected or nominated to serve for the remainder of his predecessor’s term of office.

16. xxxxxx

18. Election of President/Vice President.—(1) Every Municipal Committee or Municipal Council shall, from time to time, elect one of its elected members to be President for such period as may be prescribed, and the member so elected shall become President of the Municipal Committee or Municipal Council:

Provided that the office of the President in Municipal Committee and Municipal Councils shall be reserved for Scheduled Castes and women in accordance with the provisions made in section 10 :

Provided further that if the office of President is vacated during his tenure on account of death, resignation or no confidence motion, a fresh election for the remainder of the period shall be held from the same category.

(2) Every Municipal Committee of Municipal Council shall also, from time to time, elect one of its elected members to be vide-president.

Provided that if the office of the Vice-President is vacated during his tenure on account of death, resignation or no confidence motion a fresh election for the remainder of the period shall be held.

(3) The term of office of the Vice-President shall be for a period of five years or for the residue period of his office as a member, which ever is less.

19. Omitted.

20. Resignation of president or Vice-President.—(1) The President or Vice President may resign his office by tendering his resignation in writing to the Deputy Commissioner, such resignation shall, unless withdrawn within seven days from the date of tendering the resignation, be deemed to have been accepted.”

(2) Nothing in this Section shall affected the provision of Section 21.

21. Motion of no confidence against President or Vice-President.—(1) A motion of no-confidence against the President or Vice President may be made in accordance with the procedure laid down in the rules.

(2) The Deputy Commissioner or such other officer not below the rank of an Extra Assistant Commissioner, as the Deputy Commissioner may authorized, shall convene a meeting for the consideration of the motion referred to in sub-section(1), in the manner laid down in the rules, and shall preside at such meeting.

(3) If the motion is carried with the support of not less than two-thirds of the elected members of the committee, the President or Vice President, as the case may be, shall be, deemed to have vacated his office.

(4) If a no confidence motion is passed against the President and the Vice-President simultaneously or otherwise, the Sub-Divisional Officer (Civil) of the area in which the municipality is situated or any other officer not below the rank of an Extra Assistant Commissioner authorized by the Deputy Commissioner shall henceforth exercise the powers and discharge the functions of the President till the election of a President is notified or a Vice-President is elected.

(5) A meeting referred to in sub-section (2) shall be presided over by the Deputy Commissioner or the officer authorized by him but neither he nor such officer shall have the right to vote at such meeting.

22. Removal of President or Vice-President.—The State Government may, at any time, by notification, remove a President or Vice-President from his office on the ground of abuse of his power or of habitual failure to perform his duties :

Provided that no removal of the President or Vice President shall be notified unless the matter has been enquired into by an officer, not below the rank of an Extra Assistant Commissioner appointed by the State Government and the President or Vice-President, as the case may be has been given a reasonable opportunity of being heard.

22A. Suspension of president or vice-president.—(1) Director may suspend president or vice-president of a committee where –

(a) a case against him in respect of any criminal offence is under investigation, enquiry or trial, if in the opinion of the Director the charge made or proceedings taken against him, are likely to embarrass him in the discharge of his duties or involves moral turpitude or defect of a character ;

(b) a case against him in respect of the grounds of removal mentioned under section 22 is under enquiry, after giving him a reasonable opportunity of being heard.

(2) Any president or vice-president, as the case may be, suspended under sub-section (1) shall not take part in any act or proceeding of the committee during the period of suspension and shall hand over the records, money or any other property of the committee in his possession or under his control.

(i) to vice-president if he is president.

(ii) to president if he is vice-president; and

(iii) in case both the president and vice-president are suspended, to such person as the Director may appoint in this behalf :

Provided that the suspension period of president or vice-president as the case may be, shall not exceed six months from the date of issuance of suspension order except in criminal cases involving moral turpitude.

(3) Any person aggrieved by an order passed under sub-section (1) may, within a period of thirty days from the communication of the order, prefer an appeal to the Government.

23. xxxxxx

24. Notification of elections and nominations .--- (1) Every election or nomination of a member and election of a President of a Municipal Committee or Municipal Council shall be notified in the official Gazette and no member shall enter upon his duties until his election [Omitted by ibid] has been so notified and until, notwithstanding anything contained in the Oaths Act, 1969 elected members has taken or made at a meeting of the Municipal Committee or Municipal Council an oath or affirmation of his allegiance to India and the Constitution of India in the following form, namely:-

AB, having been elected [Omitted by ibid] member of a Municipal Committee or Municipal Council of ______________ do solemnly swear ( or affirm) that I will be faithful and bear true allegiance to India and the constitution of India as by law established and I will faithfully, discharge the duties upon which I am about to enter.

(2) Every election of a member shall be notified in the Official Gazette by the State Election Commission and every election of a President shall be notified by the State Government in the official Gazette within thirty days from the date of declaration of the result of such election and if no notification is issued within the said period, the election shall be deemed to have been notified.

(3) If any such person omits or refuses to take or make the oath or affirmation as required by sub-section(1) within three months of the date of notification of his election, his election shall be deemed to be invalid for any reason which it may consider sufficient unless the State Government, extends the period within which such oath or affirmation may be taken or made.

(4) If an lection is deemed to be invalid under the provisions of sub-section(3), a fresh election shall be held.



34. Constitution and composition of Wards Committees etc.—(1) The State Government may constitute Wards Committees consisting of one or more wards within the territorial area of a municipality having a population of three lakhs or more in the manner as may be prescribed by rules.

(2) A member of a municipality representing a ward within the territorial area of the Wards Committee shall be a member of that wards Committee.

(3) Where a Wards Committee consists of .—

(a) one ward, the member representing that ward in the municipality; or

(b) two or more wards, one of the members representing such wards in the municipality elected by the members of the wards Committee, shall be the Chairperson of that wards Committee.

(4) The wards Committee constituted under this section shall be entrusted with such powers and functions as may be prescribed by rules.

203B. Constitution of District Planning Committee.—(1) The State Government shall, by notification in the Official Gazette, constitute in each district, a District Planning Committee to consolidate the plans prepared by the Panchayats and the municipalities in the district and to prepare a draft development plan for the district as a whole.

(2) The State Government may prescribe by rules the manner in which the seats in the District Planning Committees shall be filled in :

Provided that not less than four-fifths of the total number of members of such Committee shall be elected by and from amongst the elected members of the Panchayat at the district level and of the Municipalities in the district in proportion of the ratio between population of the rural areas and of the urban areas in the district.

(3) Every District Planning Committee shall, while preparing the draft development plan ---

(a) have regard to ---

(i) matters of common interest between the Panchayats and the Municipalities including spatial planning, sharing of water and other physical and natural resources, the integrated development of infrastructure environmental conservation ;

(ii) the extent and type of available resources whether financial or otherwise ;

(b) consult such institutions and organizations as the Government may, by order, specify.

(4) The Chairperson of every District Planning Committee shall forward the development plan, as recommended by such Committee, to the State Government.



254. Power of State Government to dissolve committee in case of incompetence, persistent default or abuse of powers.--- (1) Should a committee be incompetent to perform, or persistently makes default in the performance of, the duties imposed on it by or, under this or any other Act, or exceed or abuse its powers, the State Government may, by notification, in which the reasons for so doing shall be stated, declare the committee to be dissolved:

“Provided that no notification declaring the committee to be superseded shall be made unless the matter has been enquired into by an officer, not below the rank of an extra Assistant Commissioner, appointed by the State Government and the committee concerned has been given a reasonable opportunity of being heard.”;

(2) When a committee is so superseded, the following consequences shall ensue :-

(a) all members of the committee shall, from the date of the notification, vacate their seats ;

(b) all powers and duties of the committee may, until the committee is reconstituted, be exercised and performed by such as the State Government may appoint in this behalf ;

(c) all property vested in the committee shall, untill the committee is reconstituted, vest in the State Government.



264. Definitions.-- In this Chapter, unless there is anything repugnant in the subject or context.---

(a) “Tribunal” means the Municipal Election Tribunal consisting of a person or persons appointed by the State Government to hold an inquiry in respect of an election petition under this Act. [Sub. By H.A. 3 of 1994]

(b) “costs” means all costs charges and expenses of or incidental to an enquiry ;

(c) “election” means any election held under the provisions of this Act or the rules ;

(d) “inquiry” means an inquiry in respect of an election by the Tribunal;

(e) “pleader” means any person entitled to appear and plead for another in a civil court, and includes an advocate, a vakil and an attorney of a High Court.

265. Appointment of Tribunal by State Government.—The State Government may appoint a Tribunal consisting of one or more Person to hold an inquiry.

266. Power of Tribunal.-- In respect of the following matters a Tribunal shall have the powers which are vested in a court under the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908, when trying a suit:-

(a) discovery and inspection,

(b) enforcing the attendance of witnesses, and requiring the deposit of their expenses.

(c) compelling the production of documents,

(d) examining witnesses on oath,

(e) grant adjournments,

(f) reception of evidence taken on affidavit, and

(g) issuing commissions for the examination of witnesses;

and may summon and examine suo moto any person whose evidence appears to be material, and shall be deemed to be a civil court within the meaning of sections 345, 346 of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973.

267. Application of Indian Evidence Act, 1872.—The provisions of the Indian Evidence Act 1872, shall, subject to the provisions of this Chapter, be deemed to apply in all respects to an enquiry.

268. Admissibility of documents not duly stamped or registered.—Not withstanding anything contained in any enactment to the contrary, no document shall be in admissible in evidence on the ground that it is not duly stamped or registered.

269. Witness not excused from answering on ground that answer will incriminate.— (1) No witness shall be excused from answering any questing relating to any matter relevant to a matter in issue in an inquiry upon the ground that the answer to such questing will incriminate or may tend, directly or indirectly, to incriminate him, or that it will expose or tend, directly or indirectly, to expose him to a penalty or forfeiture of any kind :

Provided that ---

(i) no person who has voted at an election shall be required to state for whom he has voted; and

(ii) a witness who, in the opinion of the Tribunal has answered truly all questions which he has been required by the said Tribunal to answer shall be entitled to receive a certificate of indemnity and such a certificate may be pleaded by such person in any court and shall be deemed to be a full and complete defence to or upon any charge under Chapter IX-A of the Indian Penal Code, 1860, arising out of the matter to which such certificates relates, nor shall any such answer be admissible in evidence against him in any suit or other proceedings.

(2) Nothing in sub-section(1) shall be deemed to relieve a person receiving a certificate of indeminity from any disqualification in connection with an election imposed by any law or any rule having the force of law.

270. Appearance, application or act before [Tribunal].—Any appearance, application or act before the Tribunal may be made or done by the party in person or by a pleader duly appointed to act on his behalf :

Provided that any such appearance shall, if the Tribunal so directs, be made by the party in person.

271. Expenses incurred in attending to given evidence to be part of cost.—The reasonable expenses incurred by any person in attending to give evidence may be allowed by the Tribunal to such person, and shall, unless the [Tribunal] otherwise directs, be deemed to be part of the costs.

272. Decision of Tribunal.--- (1) At the conclusion of the trial of an election petition, the Tribunal shall make order.--

(a) dismissing the election petition ;

(b) declaring the election of all or any of the returned candidates to be void;

(c) declaring the election of all or any of the returned candidates to void and the petitioner or any other candidate to have been duly elected.

(2) At the time of making an order under sub-section (1), the Tribunal shall also make an order. ---

(a) Where any charge is made in the petition of any corrupt practice having been committed at the election, recording.—

(i) a finding whether any corrupt practice has or has not been proved to have been committed at the election, and the nature of that corrupt practice; and

(ii) the names of all persons, if any, who have been proved at the trial to have been guilty of any corrupt practice and the nature of that corrupt practice ; and

(b) fixing the total amount of costs payable, and specifying the persons by and to whom costs shall be paid.

(3) Corrupt practices shall entail disqualification for being elected as a member or President of a committee for such period, not exceeding Six years, as the Tribunal may in its orders direct:

Provided that the State Government may, for reasons to be recorded, remove any disqualification under this Chapter or reduce the period of any such disqualification.

(4) The Tribunal after announcing the orders made under this section shall send a copy thereof to such authority as may be specified in this behalf by the State Government.

(5) Every order of the Tribunal under this section shall take effect as soon as it is pronounced by it [Sub. By H.A. 3 of 1994]

Provided that where by any such order the election of a returned candidate is declared to be void, acts and proceedings in which that candidate has before the date of the order, participated as a member of the committee shall not be invalidated by reason of that order.

273. Appeal from orders of Tribunal.—(1) An appeal from the order of the Tribunal passed under section 272 shall lie to the District Judge.

(2) The District Judge shall, subject to the provisions of this Act, have the same powers, jurisdiction and authority, and follow the same procedure, with respect to an appeal under this section as if it were an appeal from an original decree passed by a civil court situated within the local limits of his civil court appellate jurisdiction.

(3) Every appeal under this section shall be preferred within a period of thirty days from the date of the order appealed from :

Provided that the District Judge may entertain an appeal after the expiry of such period of thirty days if he is satisfied that the appellant had sufficient cause for not preferring the appeal within such period.

(4) The decision of the District Judge on appeal, and subject only to such decision, the order of the Tribunal under section 272 shall be final and conclusive.

274. Payment of costs.--Any order as to costs under this chapter may be produced before the principal civil court of original jurisdiction within the local limits of whose jurisdiction any person directed by such order to pay any sum of money has a place of residence or business, and such court shall execute such order or cause it to be executed in the same manner and by the same procedure as if it were a decree for the payment of money made by itself in a suit.

275. Secrecy of voting.—(1) Every employee, agent or other person who performs any duties in connection with recording or counting of votes at an election shall maintain and aid in maintaining the secrecy of the voting and shall not (except for some purpose authorized by or under any law) communicate to any person any information calculated to violate such secrecy.

(2) Any person who willfully act in contravention of the provisions of this section shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term not exceeding three months or with fine, or with both.

275-A. Electoral offences.—The provisions of sections 24 to 31 of the Haryana Municipal Corporation Act, 1994, shall so far as may be consistent with the provisions of this Act, shall apply mutatis mutandis to the Municipal Committees and Municipal Councils constituted or deemed to have been constituted by or under this Act.

275B. Bar to interference by Comrts electoral matters.—Not withstanding anything contained in this Act,—

(a) the validity of any law relating to the delimitation of constituencies, made or purporting to be made under this Act, shall not be called in question in any court.

(b) no election to any municipality shall be called in question except by an election petition presented to the Tribunal and in such manner as may be prescribed by rules.

276. Power to make rules.—The State Government may make rules consistent with this Act, to carry out the purposes of this Chapter, and all such rules shall be subject to previous publication.

vikas bhatheja said...

MODEL CODE OF CONDUCT

MODEL CODE OF CONDUCT FOR THE GUIDANCE OF THE CONTESTING CANDIDATES, GOVERNMENT DEPARTMENTS AND GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEES IN THE ELECTIONS TO THE MUNICIPAL COUNCILS/MUNICIPAL COMMITTEES AND MUNICIPAL CORPORATION

PART – I : FOR CANDIDATES
1. General Conduct for Cadidates

(1) No party or candidates shall indulge in any activity which may aggravate existing differences or create mutual hatred or cause tension between different castes and communities, religious or linguistic.

(2) There shall be no appeal to caste or communal feelings for securing votes.

(3) Houses, Churches, Temples or other places of worship shall not be used as forum for election propaganda.

(4) All parties and candidates shall refrain from criticism of all aspects of private life, not connected with the public activities of the leaders or workers of other parties. Criticism of other parties or their workers based on unverified allegations or on distortion shall be avoided.

(5) Criticism of other political parties, when made, shall be confined to their parties and programmes, past record and work. They should not be criticised on unverified allegations.

(6) The right of every individual for peaceful and undisturbed life shall be respected, however, much the political parties or candidates may resent his political feelings or activities. Organising demonstrations or picketing before the houses of individuals by way of protesting against their opinions shall not be resorted to under any circumstances.

(7) Political parties and candidates should avoid such activities which are offences under the election Law for example:

(i)Transport and conveyance of voters to and from polling stations.

(ii)Holding Public Meeting during the period of 48 hours ending with the hour fixed for close of poll.

(iii) Canvassing within 100 meters of a polling station.

(iv) Bribing of voters, intimidation of voters, personation of voters.

(8) On the day of polling or two days prior to it, the liquor shall neither be purchased nor shall it be offered to any person or distributed. Every candidate will ask his supporters also not to indulge in such activities.

(9) No candidate shall permit his followers to make use of any individual’s land building, compound wall etc. without his permission for erecting flag staffs, suspending banners, pasting notices, writing slogans etc.

(10) No political party or candidate shall allow his supporters to remove the flags or posters pasted by other parties or candidates.

(11) Identification slips given to the voters will be on plain paper containing the name of the candidate. It should not have name of the candidate and his election symbol. The identification/slips will contain the name of voters, his father/husband’s name, ward number, polling station number and serial number in the voting list and will not contain anything else.

(12) The candidate/political party will give full co-operations to the polling staff on duty for the peaceful conduct of the elections.

II. Meeting and Processions
(i) The party or candidates shall inform the local police authorities of the venue and time of any proposed meeting/procession well in time so as to the police to make necessary arrangements for controlling traffic and maintaining peace and order.

(ii) A party or candidate shall ascertain in advance if there are any restrictive or prohibitory orders in force in the place proposed for the meting/procession. If such orders exist, they will be followed strictly. If any exemption is required from such orders, it shall be applied for and obtained well in time.

(iii) The organisers shall take steps in advance ot arrange for passage of the procession so that there is no block or hindrance to traffic. If the procession is very long, it shall be organised in suitable lengths so that at convenient intervals, especially at points where the procession has to pass road junctions, the passage of held-up traffic could be allowed by stages thus avoiding heavy traffic congestion.

(iv) If two or more political parties or candidates propose to take processions from the same route or parts thereof at the same time, the organisers shall contact well in advance and decide upon the measures to be taken to see that the processions do not clash or cause hindrance to the traffic. Local police shall be availed of for arriving at a satisfactory arrangement. For this purpose, the parties shall contact the police at the earliest possible.

(v) The political parties or candidates shall exercise control to the maximum extent possible in the matter of processionists carrying articles which may be put to misuse by undesirable elements, especially in moments of excitement.

(vi) Organisers of a meeting shall invariably seek the assistance of the police on duty for dealing with persons disturbing a meeting/procession or otherwise attempting to create disorder. Organisers themselves shall not take action against such persons.

(vii) The carrying of effigies purporting to represent members of other political parties or their leaders, burning such effigies in public and such other forms of demonstration shall not be countenanced by any political party or candidate.


III. Polling Day
All political parties and candidates shall: -

(i) supply to their authorised workers suitable badges or identity cards;

(ii) agree that the identity slips supplied by them to voters shall be on plain (white paper) and shall not contain any symbol, name of the candidate or the name of the party;

(iii) refrain from serving or distributing liquor on polling day and during the twenty-four hours preceding it;

(iv) not allow unnecessary crowds to be collected near the camps set-up by the political parties and candidates near the polling booths so as to avoid confrontation and tension among workers and sympathisers of the parties and candidates.

(v) Ensure that the candidate’s camps shall be simple. They shall not display any posters, flags, symbols or any other propaganda material. No eatables shall be served or crowds allowed at the camps;

(vi) co-operate with the authorities in complying with the restrictions to be imposed on the plying of vehicles on the polling day and obtain permits for them.

IV. Polling Booth
Except the voters, no one without a valid pass from the Election Commission shall enter the polling booths.

PART-II : FOR GOVERNMENT DEPARTMENTS AND GOVERNMENT SERVANTS
1. No Government servant shall take part in, subscribe in aid of, or assist in any way, any candidate.

2. Attendance at public meetings organised by candidate would always be contrary to the Government Servants Conduct Rules unless all the following conditions are satisfied: -

(1) (a) that the meeting is public meeting and not in any sense private or restricted meeting;

(b) that the meeting is not held contrary to any prohibitory order or without permission where permission is needed; and

(c) that the Government servant in question does not himself speak at, or take active or prominent part in organising or conducting the meeting.

(2) Even where the said conditions are satisfied, while occasional attendance at such meetings may not be construed as a participation, frequent or regular attendance by a Government servant at meetings of any particular candidate is bound to create the impression that he is a sympathiser of the aims and objects of that particular candidate. Conduct which give cause for such an impression may well be construed as assisting a candidate.

3. During election campaign, if any Minister visits a private house in connection with some election programme, the Government servant should not attend that function.

4. While giving permission for any meeting no candidate should be discriminated.

5.If on a particular day a number of candidates apply for holding a meeting at a particular place, the permission should be given to only that candidate who had applied first.

6.Rest Houses or Circuit Houses should be given for use to all candidates on the same and equal conditions. No candidate will be given permission to use these places or premises for election propaganda.

7. (a) During the election period, if any, meeting is conducted it should be considered a meeting for political purpose and Government should not spend any amount on it; leaving aside the Govt. servants who are there for maintaining law and order, no other Government employee should attend such meetings.

(b) During the period of elections, if any Minister visits any Municipal Committee/Corporation and Panchayat where the elections are due, such tour must be considered as election tour and no Government servant should accompany the Minister/those who are to be provided for security. During such tours Government vehicles should not be made available.

(c) From the date when the election is announced till the election is complete, the Government, Local Government, Cooperative Institutions and such other Institutions which receive aid from the Government would not make available their vehicles to the Munisters, Members of Parliament, Member of Legislative Assembly or candidates and such vehicles will not be utilised for election purposes.

8. Ministers will not combine their official tours with the tours for the purpose of election propaganda nor will they utilise the Government servants or vehicles during the election period which can be considered as being utilised for the purpose of favouring a candidate.

9. From the date election is announced till the election is complete, Ministers will not give any grant from the discretionary fund or from the Government fund nor will they sanction any scheme. During this period no foundation stone will be laid nor will any plan be inaugurated.

10. During election period such advertisements will not be released by Government Institutions in the news-papers which will highlight the achievements of the party in power which may lead to favouring a candidate.

vikas bhatheja said...

Ambala at a Glance
Ambala was constituted as a district in the year 1847 and was formed by merging the jagir estates of hitherto independent chieftains whose territories had lapsed or had been confiscated by the British Indian Government. In its 160 years of existence as a district, Ambala has witnessed many changes in its boundaries. In its heydays the district boundaries extended across tehsils of Ambala, Naraingarh, Jagadhri, Pipli, Kharar, Ropar and Nalagarh. Kalka-cum-Kurari State, Pinjore, Manimajra, Kasauli & Sanawar were also merged into the district at different points of time. Today’s Ambala District with an area of 1568.85 km² is a pale shadow of its original immense size.

The Ambala District now comprises two subdivisions (Ambala & Naraingarh) and three tehsils (Ambala, Barara & Naraingarh). It has a population of 12 lakhs, which is about 5% of the total population of Haryana. It is bound by Mohali and Patiala districts of Punjab, Sirmaur District of Himachal and Yamunanagar & Kurukshetra districts of Haryana. Ambala district is represented by 5 Assembly Constituencies and 1 Lok Sabha Constituency. The district is very strategically located and serves as a gateway to Haryana for States of Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, J&K, and U.T. Chandigarh. 5 National Highways (NH 1, 22, 65, 72 and 73) pass through Ambala. NH1 (Delhi-Amritsar-Attari/ Pakistan Border) is the most important highway to Delhi for the areas north of Haryana. NH22 starts from Ambala and links NH1 to Shimla and beyond right up to China border at Shipkila. NH65 also starts at Ambala and links NH1 to Hissar and onwards to Jodhpur & Pali in Rajasthan.


Ambala Cantt Railway StationAmbala is a divisional headquarters of the Northern Railway Zone and is an important railway junction. The Ambala Cantonment railway station was founded on the junction of the Delhi-Kalka and Ludhiana-Saharanpur lines. The historic Delhi-Ambala-Kalka railway line dates back to 1889 while the Ludhiana-Saharanpur line was built in 1870.

Ambala Airforce Station is one of the oldest and largest airbases that were inherited from the British by the IAF. It was from this airbase that Spitfires and Harvards flown by Instructors of the Advanced Flying Training School took part in the 1947-48 Kashmir Operations. Subsequently, Ambala was the front line airfield for many years. It was home to various aircraft that were inducted into the Indian Air Force. Vampires, Ouragans, Hunters etc all flew from this base. The airbase was briefly attacked in 1965 by Pakistan Air Force's B-57 bombers. Today, the Airbase houses the ‘7 Wing’ with squadrons of Jaguars and MiG-21 Bisons. Ambala airfield has a war memorial called 'Frozen Tear' dedicated to all aircrew who lost their lives in times of war and peace flying missions from the airfield.

The Ambala Cantonment was established in the year 1843 after the British abandoned its cantonment at Karnal following the malaria epidemic of 1841-42. The cantonment houses the ‘2 Corps’ one of the three Strike Corps of the Indian Army and is of immense strategic importance. Ambala is known for its scientific and surgical instruments manufacturing industry. It also has metal casting, kitchen mixer grinder manufacturing and submersible motor pump manufacturing industry. Ambala is also famous for its wholesale cloth market touted by the locals to be the largest in Asia.


[edit] History
As per ancient Indian history, Aryan people had resided at Ambala at some point in time. There was a very popular place called Sarudhna near Ambala, which was the Aryan country's capital at that time. Ambala was given the status of a district in the year 1847. The British built a Cantonment here, and the Cantonment has grown bigger than the main city now.


[edit] Origins of the Name
There are quite a few interesting beliefs about the origin of Ambala:

Some historians believe Ambala owes its name to King Singh; the founder of Ambala who was an Amb Rajput
Some believe that itt was named after the goddess "AMBA" whose temple is located in the city.
Ambala was originally called "Ambwala", Amb meaning mango in the native language (so, city of Mangoes)

[edit] Geography & location
Ambala is located at 30.38° N 76.78° E[1]. It has an average elevation of 264 metres (866 feet).

Situated 200 km north of Delhi, this town is extremely well connected by the rail and road network. Ambala is a major railway junction. G.T. Road (NH-1, National Highway 1) passes through Ambala Cantt and Ambala City.


[edit] Industry and Business
Ambala Cantt is known for its scientific & surgical instruments [manufacturing] industry. The clientèle of this industry includes an impressive list of prestigious colleges of India and off late; overseas clients. Ambala is famously called the "City of Scientific Instruments".

Ambala district has industries in metal casting, kitchen mixer grinder manufacturing, and submersible motor pump manufacturing. It is also famous for its wholesale cloth market, which sells some of the best cloth material. Ambala district would soon have a 2500 acre (10 km²) SEZ that would be developed by K. P. Singh promoted DLF Universal Limited.


[edit] Education
Within the last decade, Ambala has seen the opening of some fine schools and colleges that impart modern education. Schools include: Army School, P.K.R.Jain Vatika, school with computer aided teaching and Convent of Jesus and Mary, S.A Jain senior Model school, Air Force School, S.A.Jain Girls School, Bhartiya Public School, K.Vs, SD Public School, DAV Schools (all in Ambala Cantt) and PKR Jain School, Dev Samaj Model School, DAV Public School, Ambala City have been known for their academic results in Tenth and Twelfth Class CBSE Board examinations. Boarding Schools like Chaman Vatika and Springfield Public School have also opened recently. Of these, Army School boasts to be the best in the region for its excellence. Its hardworking and efficient staff [Mrs. Kum Kum Chopra (Eng), Mrs. Neeraj Taneja (Phy), Mr. J. Varghese (Eco), Mr. Harmeet Singh (Maths), Mrs. Nirmal Sharma (Hindi) and etc..] has been the key reason for this achievement. The school has been known for its great disciplinarian nature and also for it academics merged with extra curricullar activities

In Ambala City there are two Polytechnics: Government Polytechnic, and Government Polytechnic for Women. Both of them provide Haryana Government Recognised Diploma and come under the Directorate of Technical Education, Haryana.

The opening of Medical and Engineering Colleges in and around Ambala have made it a hot-spot for students throughout Haryana. Ambala boasts of having one of the four medical colleges in the state. This Medical College comes under MMEC [1]. MMEC hosts many courses, both in Engineering and Bio-Sciences. Another Engineering College in Ambala is ACE, Ambala College of Engineering & applied research, which is well known for its biotechnology labs and world famous professor Dr. Mehar Singh (Chamad, Chimpu, Dipper wale). Other colleges in Ambala are S.D.College, G.M.N. College, Government Post Graduate College, in Ambala Cantt, D.A.V.College, S.A.Jain College [2]in Ambala City. S.D.College ranks among the best in the region. Shri Atmanand Jain Institute of Management and Technology (AIMT) which is located in Ambala City, is one of the premier institutes in Haryana. It offers two courses MCA (Master of Computer Application) & MBA (Master of Business Administration)[3].


[edit] Places of interest
There are many shrines in and around Ambala City, including Bhawani Amba Temple (named after the goddess Bhawani). Ambala is home to many Gurdwaras (Sikh temples), some of which have historical importance. The Badshahi Bag Gurudwara, Sis Ganj Gurudwara, Manji Sahib Gurudwara, Labhuwala Talaah, and Sangat Sahib Gurdwara are the historical gurudwaras here. These are associated with Guru Gobind Singh, Guru Tegh Bahadur and Guru Hargobind respectively. There are also the popular Muslim shrines of Lakhi Shah and Taqwal Shah, Saint Paul's Church and a British, Christian cemetery. Patel Park in Ambala Cantt and City Park in Ambala City have beautiful gardens.

Chandigarh is a 45 km (45 minutes drive) from Ambala.
Kalka is situated on the national highway Ambala-Shimla.
Panchkula is a newly built city on the Ambala-Kalka national highway and Ambala-Kalka railway line near Chandigarh.
Pinjore comes under the Panchkula district and is known for its exquisite gardens.
Kurukshetra (it is said that the battle of Mahabharata was fought here) is also just 45 minutes drive from Ambala Cantt.
Manocha Niwas is a 5 km (15 minutes drive) from Ambala Cant. Station.
Ambala is also known as sikh jatt place & in the villages they have taste of punjab virsa as well as haryana's culture


[edit] District Administration
The Deputy Commissioner, an officer belonging to the Indian Administrative Service, is the overall in-charge of the General Administration in the district. He is assisted by a number of officers belonging to Haryana Civil Service and other Haryana state services.
The Superintendent of Police, an officer belonging to the Indian Police Service, is responsible for maintaining Law & Order and related issues in the district. He is assisted by the officers of the Haryana Police Service and other Haryana Police officials.
The Deputy Conservator of Forests, an officer belonging to the Indian Forest Service, is responsible for the management of the Forests, Environment and Wild-Life in the district. He is assisted by the officers of the Haryana Forest Service and other Haryana Forest officials and Haryana Wild-Life officials.
Sectoral development is looked after by the district head/officer of each development department such as PWD, Health, Education, Agriculture, Animal husbandry, etc. These officers are from various Haryana state services.

[edit] Demographics
As of 2001 India census[2], Ambala had a population of 139,222. Males constitute 53% of the population and females 47%. Ambala has an average literacy rate of 76%, higher than the national average of 59.5%; with 55% of the males and 45% of females literate. 11% of the population is under 6 years of age.

vikas bhatheja said...

Coordinates: 30°23′N 76°47′E / 30.38, 76.78
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
Area
• Elevation
• 264 m (866 ft)
District(s) Ambala
Population
• Sex ratio 1,990,003,452, (2001)
• 921
Codes
• Pincode
• Telephone
• Vehicle
• 134003
• +0171
• hr

vikas bhatheja said...

Ambala (Hindi: अंबाला) is a city and a municipal council in Ambala district in the state of Haryana, India. The city is located on the border of the states of Haryana and Punjab in India. Politically; Ambala has two sub-areas: Ambala Cantt (cantonment) and Ambala City, a few kilometers apart from each other. It has a large Indian Army and Indian Air Force presence within the confines of its cantonment area. Due to its geographical location, the Ambala District plays an important role in local tourism. Tourists to Himachal Pradesh , Punjab , Chandigarh and Jammu & Kashmir have to cross through Ambala whether by Road or Rail .

vikas bhatheja said...

ORIGIN &GROWTH

[Brief Introduction] [Ancient Period] [Medieval Period]

[Modern Period]




Brief Introduction

The Ambala District has claims of being one of the Historical famous District of Haryana State . The District was explored during British period by A.C.Cunningham and C.Rodgers and later by B.B.Lal and many others.On the basis of various literary and archeological evidences it is possible to give an outline of culture and History of Ambala District.The earliest literacy reference to the region comprising the Ambala District in the Taittiriya Aranayaka which mentions Turghna as the bordering region towards the North of kurukshetra. This locality identified with Shrughna Sugh also finds mention in Panini (Ancient Indian Literature).It is surmised that Ambala District to have been founded by Amba Rajput during the 14th century AD. Another version is that the name is a corruption of Amba Wala or the mango-village judging from mango groves that existed in its immediate neighborhood. Still another version is that the District has taken its name after goddess "Bhawani Amba" whose Temple still exist in Ambala city.


Ancient Period

The earliest inhabitants of district were a primitive people using stone tools of lower palacolithic Age. These tools were found at various sites in the district like Tarlokpur etc. Unfortunately this district has not yielded any pre Harappan or mature Harappan site. However there has been some satisfactory evidence in kins of late Harappan. The Various evidence specially that of painted Grey ware pottery support the fact that the Aryans also inhabited the region. The Ambala region was included in the Kingdom of Pandava and there successors.The Edicts of Ashoka Chiefly Topara edicts and stupas at Singh and Chaneti associate this district with Maurayan Empire which further add to the district with Mauryan Empire which further add to the importance of place. The discovering of Sunga Terralottas suggests that they held this area. Several coins of menander have alsobeen recovered from the area. The district has also yielded Coins of Indo Parthian Gondophernes and a coin of Mahakshtrapa Rajuvala (from Ambala and Nariangarh). At some places Kushan Bricks have also been found which justify the conclusion that this district was included in the Kushana empire. According to Dr.R.C. Majumdar the region between Lahore and Karnal formed a part of Samudra Gupta empire . This evidence is supported by Mehrauli Pillar Inscription and silver coins found at various places.The region formed an integral part of nearly all the premier ruling dynasties of India. In 7th Century is was a part of Sukantha Janpada of puspabhuti of Thanesar. Some foreign sources specially those of Chinese pilgrimage Hiven Tsang who visited during Harsha regime show that this District was also under some influence of Buddhism . The district further Witnessed the Imperial ambition of Yaso Verman of Kanauj and laladitya. After the invasion of Mohammed Ghaznavi charuhaus brought it under their control the Topara pillar stands Testimony of this fact. Finally the Muslims under took the district after the defeat of Prithviraj Chauhan in the second Battle of Terrain 1192. Between 9th to12th century this district retained its importance as a centre of religious pilgrimage. The discovery of image of lords at several places suggest existence of beautiful temples which were probably destroyed during Muslim invasions.


Medieval Period

Under the Muslim district formed a part of Kutab-Bin-Abak Empire. The region also witnessed the invasion of Timur. In 1450 Bahlol Lodhi the then governor of Punjab brought the area under his Sway till Babur's invasion in 1526. Akbar's reign is full of events in Din-E-Akbari .It is mentioned that mahals of Ambala to be part of Sirhind of Delhi suba. After the Aurangjeb death the political position and various forces are rose in opposition to the Empire. Banda Bahudar a disciple of Guru Gobind Singh launched a fierce attack on Ambala area (1709-10) however he lost to Mughals at Sadhaura in (1710). After Banda ,Khidmat a Mughal official governed the Ambala Terrritory till 1739. When Nadir Shah's invasion a dark period followed with the division of Ambala in to small principalities Abdali held this area from 1757 onwards. The restive sikhs in 1763 come in possession of this territory after slaying Abdalis Governor. In short during medieval age this reign was full of Political activities and Turmoil's.



Modern Period

The advent of British Rule Marked the growth of Sikh Power in this region and the consequent destruction by British in 1805. The British in order to increase their sway beyond Yamuna look the Chiefs in Ambala under their protection. The British Controlled the affairs of all states in the region in a most effective manner through the political agency at Ambala . In 1845, the Sikh chief showed passive obstruction or open hostility to the British. The result was the police jurisdiction of most of the chief as well as transit and custom duty were abolished and a commutation was accepted for the personal service of the chief of his contingent. The political agency of Ambala was transformed into Commissionership under the commissioner of the cis-Satluj states. By 1846 several chiefships had lapsed owing to their failure to have male heirs and the so called break down of administrative machinery. The British acquired strips of territory around Ambala district in 1847. In 1849, Punjab was annexed and then it was declared that expect Buria and Kalsia all chiefs would cease to hold sovereign powers.

The Revolt of 1857

The Ambala district played a significant role in uprising of 1857. Ambala was a military depot of great Importance then. Sham Singh ,a sepoy of the 5th Native infantry told Forsyth, the then Deputy Commissioner Ambala in the end of April 1857 that a general rising of the Sepoys would take place in the beginning of May. He was proved Correct at approximately 9 A.M.on Sunday 10th May 1857 an Indian regiment the 60th Native Infantry rose in open revolt at Ambala followed by 5th native infantry at 12 noon but the Britsh were too alert and suppressed the revolt. Like the sepoys, the civil population was also badly disaffected . Indeed everyone among them irrespective of their caste , creed and religion stood against Britishers and played a significant Role in Struggle.

Rise of National Awakening


For a long time after the uprising the people of Haryana kept in suffering . On account of their opposition and indifference towards the British in the crisis but soon various changes swept in the country as well as the region as the result , the people of Ambala were influenced and become politically awakened and enlighted . Some organization took the task of reformation . The organization which rendered services in this district are as follows.

---------------------------------------------------------------------------
Year Name of Organization Aims and Objectives
and Place

---------------------------------------------------------------------------
1883 Arya Samaj Ambala Social & Religious reforms of
Cantonment Hindus

1884 Anjunam-Rifah-i-Am, Socio-political awakening

Ambala City of Indian
1886 Anjuman-islamiya , Bettering Muslim 'lot
Ambala city

1886 Singh Sabha Reforming sikh religion
Ambala city

1886 Central National Bellering Muslim,lot
Mohamedans
Association
Ambala city

1888 Anjuman -Islamiya Bellering Muslims' lot
Ambala Cantoment


1888 Singh Sabha Ambala Reforming Sikh religion
Cantoment

1890 Arya Samaj Ambala Social-Religious 36
city Reform Hindus

1896 Sanatam Dharam Hindu revivalism
Sabha Ambala Cantonment
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During this period the people also made efforts to establish re-organization at national level. Lala Murli Dhar of Ambala (1820-1924) was one of the founding fathers of Indian National Congress at Bombay in 1885. Later on during early twentieth century Indian National Congress organization spread its roots at various places in Ambala District.



The First world war and Non-co-operation Movement

The people of Ambala helped government in its war efforts. The village peasants gave recruits to Army but in the period following the first world war they were rendered jobless and a feeling of discontentment creeped into them. Mahatma Gandhi found a great opportunity and launched an all India agitation in 1919.The Postwar Scenario witnessed a great deal of Political activity in Ambala District like other parts of India people opposed Rowllatt Bills. The people over here opposed the Bills and passed resolution condemning the government action. After the arrest of Mahatma Gandhi and Jallianwala Bagh Tragedy some voilent disturbance also took place at number of places.The burning of the offic of a military regiment 1/34 Sikh Pioneer at Ambala Cantonment was indeed very serious. The people contributed shoulder to shoulder with Gandhi's Non Co-operation movement. But in 1922 the Movement was withdrawn as a result of chaure-chaura Incident.



The Civil disobedience Movement.

In 1930, an all India civil-disobedience Movement was launched by Mahatma Gandhi which spread throughout the nation and Ambala was no exception on April 6th,1930 a huge procession marched through the main streets of the city and leaders made soul stirring speeches. At this stage Naujawan Bharat Sabha , a progressive leftist Movement was established. The Sabha had its Base in the villages and also among the works in Ambala. The Swadeshi Movement also gained momentum at this time. The Merchant of Ambala took a vow not to sell foreign clothes and Bar association passed a resolution to wear Khadi. Even ladies come forward on 26th April 1920, and woman volunteers prepared salt in Anaj Mandi Ambala. The auctioned salt fetched 63/- ( sixty three Rupees). The struggle went on unabated except for a brief halt in 1931 till 1933, when Mahatma Gandhi withdrawn it and turned it into an individual Satyagrah. However , it did not make any impressive impact on the people and the district offered only 171 arrests during the wake of individual Satyagraha Movement in 1941.



Quit India Movement

The situation changed in 1942, when the Quit India Movement was launched. The Congress was declared as unlawful. The people of Ambala were not disheartened and gave a tough fight to the Britishers. There were violent activities also. There were lathi charges at about two dozen occasions and about 298 persons were arrested. The Movement in 1944 was as a result of arrest of leaders and repressive measures of government.The people of Ambala fought overseas also in the Indian National Army under one of the inspiring leadership of Subash Chander Boss.To sum up the people of Ambala District made a great sacrifice like their counter parts in the other parts of the country . The achievement of Independence on August 15,1947 was celebrated in the district with migration of population from both sides on account of the partition of the country.This survey of the pre-independence and historical events indicate that the area Ambala District nearly always remained a part of the main stream of the Indian History.

vikas bhatheja said...

GENERAL

INFORMATION

[Location] [Population] [River System and Water Resources]

[Mineral Occurances] [Ground Water] [Seismicity]

[Religious Beliefs And Practices] [Festivals And Fairs] [Social Life]



Location



The district Ambala lies on the North-Eastern edge of Haryana between 27-39"-45' North latitude and 74-33"-53' to 76-36"-52' East longitude. It is bounded by the district Yamunanagar to the South-East. To its South lies Kurukshetra district while in its west is situated Patiala and Ropar districts of Punjab and the Union Territory of Chandigarh. The Shivalik Range of Solan and Sirmaur districts of Himachal Pradesh bounds the Ambala district in the North and North-East. The height from the sea level is 900feet.

Area

It has an area of 1568.85 sq.kms. It comprises of three tehsils covering the area as mentioned below.

Tehsil Area (in %) as per 1991 census.

Tehsil Area(%age)

----- ---------------

Ambala 46.63

Barara 19.31

Naraingarh 28.56

Population



The total population of the district according to 2001 is 10,13,660 of which the male population accounted for 5,42,366 and female for 4,71,294. The population of the district forms 4.8 percent of the total population of the Haryana state. The literate population is 673807out of which 390012 are males and 283795 are females respectively. The sex rate is 869 and the density of population is 644.


River System & Water Resources



The district is mainly drained by non-perennial streams and the drainage system of the district comprises of the following:

1. The Markanda & its tributaries

2. The Dangri (Tangri) & its tributaries

3. The Ghagghar & its tributaries

The Markanda and the Dangri streams ultimately drain into the Ghagghar river beyond the territory of the district. The Ghagghar along with its tributaries however constitutes an inland drainage system.

The Markanda

The Markanda which drains the southern slopes of Dharti Dhar range (Himachal Pradesh) , cuts through the shivalik range and enter the plains and the district. The river channel which is broad between Kalaamb and Mullana becomes narrow south of Mullana. During the rainy season the river carries enormous water which causes flooding in its lower course.

The Dangri

The Tangri streams rises in the Morni Hills and flows in a southerly direction upto village Chajju Majra where it is joined by the Baliali Nadi. It further flows a southerly course running on the eastern side of Ambala Cantonment. After crossing the Ambala Cantonment Ambala-Jagadhari railway line it takes south-westerly direction . Near the villages of Segta & Segti the torrent of Omla and Amri join the Dangri. It is here that the Narwana branch of Bhakhra main canal crosses the Dangri stream. Thereafter the Dangri takes a westerly course upto village Niharsi where it turns towards south and leaves the district to enter the Patiala district of Punjab.

The Dangri rising from Morni Hills , used to flow on a southerly direction upto Panjokhra, a village in the North-East of Ambala from where it is separated into two main channels. These two channels still kept a southerly course running on either side of Ambala cantonment. The Dangri seems to have changed its course towards the close of 19th century when the drainage was confined to the eastern channel.The Baliali Nadi rises in the southern slopes of the Morni Hills and joins the Dangri stream near village Chajju Majra. The Amri ( also known as Shahzadpur wali or Dadri) is formed of water collected in plains during the rainy season. It starts near Rataur and flows south-west and takes the torrent of the Omla and joins the Dangri between the villages of Segta and Segti.

The Ghagghar

The Ghagghar another important river also traverses the district for some distance in the north west. The river originates in Sirmaur district of Himachal Pradesh and enters the district. It traverse the district near Ambala City for a very short distance and then flows parallel to the district boundary outside the district .While in its-upper course , the river contains some water throughout the year, in its lower course it is generally dry in summer and carries water only during the rainy season.The two tiny lakes at an elevation of 620 metre above mean sea level near village Masiyun in the Morni hill tract are of little importance as these lakes neither feed any major stream nor are these being fed by any major river. Only a small stream from one of these lakes joins the Dangri (Tangri) nadi. Despite the large number of drainage lines passing through the district, the area suffers from inadequate water resources. Canal irrigation, which is limited to a few small pockets in the south-western tip of Ambala tehsil, does not have much scope for extension because of undulating topography in a large part of the district. The Western Yamuna (jumna) Canal, which is taken out from the Yamuna at Tajewala follows the old course of the river for a large part of its length in the district. It is also of little help to the district as it irrigates only a few villages in Jagadhri tehsil. Thus, wells and tubewells remain the major source of irrigation in the district.



Mineral Occurances

Limestone

Two bands of limestone one about 13 metre thick and the other about 25 metre thick, both extending over 500 metre have been located at Tundapathar. It is very high grade limestone with an average of 93 percent Calcium Carbonate and low in Magnesium Oxide.The estimated reserve is about 6 lakh tonnes. A band of thinly bedded Sabathu limestone, about 5 metre thick, occurs at Barun in Naraiangarh tehsil. A band of limestone, about 20 metre thick and about 1.2 kilometres long occurs at Kharag. The total reserve in the area is estimated at 50 lakh tonnes of good quality limestone.The largest deposit of this area occurs at Ramsar and Sherla (Naraingarh tehsil). The limestone is well bedded about 30 metre thick and extends for about 2.4 kilometres. The reserve is estimated at about 120 lakh tonnes. The limestone belt extends to Malla (Kalka tehsil), Jonpur,
Dabsu, Ambri and Jabial in Naraingarh tehsil.

Saltpetre

A small quantity of salpetre is extracted from the soils around Ambala and Barara.

Ground Water



The ground water in the district occurs under confined and semi-confined conditions. The depth of water level varies greatly in the area immediately to the south of the Shivalik hills. It ranges between 2 and 47 metre, maximum being towards the hills. The water level in the area further south ranges between 1.5 and 1.2 metre, but generally it varies between 4 and 8 metre. The shallow tubewells are usually constructed down to a depth of 10 to 45 metre. However at some places as in Nagia-Mullana belt, have been drilled to a depth of 90 metre. Shallow tubewells usually tap ground water from single aquifer. The deep tubewells generally range in depth between 91 and 185 metre but at few places tubewells down to 445 metre have also been constructed. Ground-water is generally fresh and suitable for domestic and irrigation purposes.



Seismicity

Seismically Ambala district lies in a region where earthquakes of moderate to great intensity have been experienced in the past. Being situated very close to the Himalayan Boundary Fault Zone, it is prone to earthquake shocks originating there. History of the past two hundered years for which records are available shows that during the Kangra earthquake of 1905, Ambala district experienced an intensity of VII-VIII M.M.(Modified Mercalli Intensity Scale of 1951). A committee of experts under the auspices of Indain Standard institution prepared seismic zoning map of India, where Ambala district has been placed in zone IV Where a maximum seismic intensity VIII M.M. is likely to reach in future earthquakes.Taking into consideration the above factors and also the fact that the extreme cases of high intensity occur only at long intervals, it is felt that a provision of seismic ground acceleration of 10 percent gravity (.10 g) may be made for engineering structures founded on well consolidated soil. For weaker foundations and important structures, the seismic factor may be suitably increased.



Religious Beliefs and Practices

Hindu

It is not easy to define Hinduism as religion. It is a collection of diverse beliefs and practices. Hindus worship a pantheon of gods in its various aspects, the chief being Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva (Mahesh). Rama and Krishna are incarnations of Vishnu. Shakti, in her different forms and names and Hanuman are also worshipped. Spirits of streams, trees and other minor dieties are also objects of worship particularly of the people in the rural areas. The Hindus of the Ambala district follow traditional Hindu beliefs and are generally orthodox in their religious practices. Worship in temple is not strictly necessary but people visit temples either daily or on special occasions. Some people install images and idols of their chosen deity in their homes and go through the ritual of daily worship. The district is associated with many legendary traditions and is a holy land of Hindus where the Aryans settlers first took abode and wrote scriptures.

Shiva

Shiva temples are found in large number as compared to other temples. A Shivalaya or Shiva temple is found almost in every village and provides glimpses of old architecture. People visit Shivalya generally on Mondays and worship the deity by pouring milk and water on the linga enshrined in it. The priests are Jogis generally of the Kanphara or pierced ear clan.

Shakti or Devi

Closely connected with the worship of Shiva and far more widely spread is the worship of his consort, Devi or Shakti. This goddess goes by many names; Durga, Kalika, Chandi, Naina, Mansa, Sharda, Ambika, Kali, Bhawani and numberless others. Devi is worshipped all over the state but her worship is most in vogue and most diversified in the Ambala district. Many celebrated Shrines of Devi are located in the District. The celebrated and famous temples of Devi which are visited by a large number of devotees from all over the state and neighbouring states of Punjab, Himachal Pradesh and Chandigarh, U.T., are located at other important temples of Devi are located at Bhoj Mataur (Durga), Raipur Rani (Durga) in Naraingarh tehsil; Ambala City (Ambika Devi) , Ambala Cantoment (Kali Devi), Babyal (Gyasi Devi), Mullana (Durga) , Phokra (Durga) and Kalawar (Durga) in Ambala tehsil. The devotees worship in these temples on saturday but Ashtami Chet sudi (March-April) and Ashtmi Asoj sudi (September-october) are special days when large number of devotees visit these temples. The devotees worship the deity and make offerings of sweets ,eatables, cash, clothes and ornaments. Sitla Mata is worshipped for protection against Smallpox. She is known to be most virulant among Devis. Sili satam,i.e.seventh of Chaitra (March-April) and all Mondays are considered favourable for worship of Sitla.

Vishnu

The district has been closely associated with theVishnu cult. According to a legend Vishnu was pleased with Brahma and asked him for any fovour. Brahma asked that Vishnu would,continue to dwell in the scared spot of Ad Badri (Kathgarh) as long as he lived.People worship Vishnu but he is hardly recognised by them under that name though under the common names of Rama,Krishna and Narayana, he is the great god of the country. Vamna,the incarnation of Vishnu is held in great god of the country. Vamna,the incarnation of Vishnu is held in great reverence and his procession is taken from all temples at Ambala on the ocassion of bawan dwadshi (Bhadon sudi dwadshi ,August-september). Rama and Krishna are worshipped as inacrnations of Vishnu and there are many temples dedicated to them. Ram Lila or the story of Ramayna and Krishna Lila, the story of Krishna are staged in various parts of the district. Rama is worshipped on Dussehra and Diwali, and the birthday of Rama is celebrated on Ram Naumi,i.e. Chet sudi naumi(March-April).The birthday of krishna is observed on Janam Ashtami,ie.Bhadon Sudi Ashtami (August-September) and fairs are held at Babyal & Ambala. Altough there are temples in all villages and towns yet special mention may be made of Sanatan Dharam temple, Ambala Cantonment and Ragunath temple, Naraingarh.

Hanumana

The followers of Vishnu are specially devoted to this deity and images of Hanumana, the monkey god ,can be seen in most of the temples. The deity is worshipped on tuesday.

Minor Deities

The Hindus believe that it is good to worship their deities. If they were malevont, it was well to propitiate them to avert, if benevolent some benefits could be derived from their worship. An assorted group containing rishis and muslim saints ,rivers like the Yamuna,Saraswati and the Markanda,deities lke Gugga Pir and Bhumia and holy personages like guru Ravidas are entitled to special reverence by different groups of worshipers.

The Yamuna, The Saraswati and the Markanda

The Yamuna or Jamna Ji and the Saraswati although not always distinguished from Saraswati, the goddess of learning are worshipped in the district and the people living near the banks bathe in the rivers particularly on the ocassion of sankranti. There are,however,no shrines dedicated to them. The Markanda is linked with the rishi of that name and a temple of Markanda exists at Haryoli (Ambala tahsil).People from the adjoining villages take bath in the river on the puranmashi of Asoj (September-October).

Gugga Pir

Gugga or Jahar Pir is supposed to be greatest of the snake kings. Gugga is worshipped throughout the district on Naumi every month and on Mondays,but 9th of Bhadon (August- September) is observed as his special day, Gugga Naumi. His shrine usually consists of a small one room building with a minaret at each corner and a grave inside. It is called mari and is marked by chhari or a switch consisting of along bambbo surmounted by peacock feathers, a cocount, some fans and a blue flag.On Gugga Naumi, Jogis take the chhari round the village to the sound of deroos and devotees salute it and make offerings. The maris of Gugga may be seen in almost every large village of the district but well-known maris are located at Shahpur (Naraingarh tehsil), Bara (Ambala tehsil).The Gugga maris where annual fairs are held on Gugga Naumi are located at Bagwali, Kakrali, Barog and Naraingarh (Naraingarh tehsil); Bhari, Babyal, Bhudian Harra, Kesri , Baknur, Sambalkha and Ambala (Ambala tehsil).

Bhumia or the God of the Homestead

Bhumia,also called khera is a most important local diety. People light a lamp and offer some eatables at the shrine and feed the Brahmans. This is done twice a year after the harvests are gathered in , also on some other occasions. Bhumia is also worshipped at marriafes, before the bridegroom proceeds to the bride's house and again before he enters his house along with his bride. When a woman has a son, she goes to Bhumia shrine with her son. The first milk of the cow of bufallo is always offered to Bhumia.

Guru Ravidas

Chamars of the district worship Guru Ravidas, a great saint. He was against the caste system. Temples for his worship have been erected in towns. The birth anniversary of the Guru is celebrated on the 'purnima of Magh' (January-February). On the occasion, tableaux from the life of the Guru are taken out in procession to the accompaniment of bhajan mandlis singing devotional songs. The fairs in honour of Guru Ravidas are held at Tepla (Ambala tehsil).

Maharishi Balmiki

Balmiki community revers Maharishi Balmiki, the composer of the Ramayana. His birth anniversary iscelebrated with enthusiasm in the month of September-October.

Arya Samaj

Towards the close of the 19th century, Arya Samaj began to flourish in the district, first in the urban areas from where its influence percolated to rural areas. The dawn of the 20th century witnessed the widespread influence of Arya Samaj which also made a remarkable contribution to the progress of education, particularly of depressed classes. The uplift of Harijans, widow re-marriage, eradication of illogical and superstitious beliefs, protection of cows and propagation of Hindi are some of the activities of the Arya Samaj.

Dev Samaj

Dev Samaj, founded in 1887, had found ready acceptance in the district and Raipur Rani and Ambala City became important centres of DevSamaj in the beginning of the 20th century. The Dev Samaj rejected all caste distinctions and believed in scientific principles. It aims at equality of status, uplift and education of the depressed classes and education of the women. The Dev Samaj runs a few educational institiutions for women at Ambala.

Sikhs

The Sikhs believe in monotheism and the teaching of the ten Gurus and the Granth Sahib. The Sikhs attach great importance to the recitation of the Granth Sahib and visit gurdwaras where verses from the Granth Sahib are recited. Besides observing some Hindus festivals, the Sikhs clelebrate gurparbs (bithdays and martyrdom days of Sikhs Gurus) and Baisakhi. Akhand Path is organised either in thanks giving or on special occasions like birth, marriage or death. Among the important gurdwaras in Ambala district, mention may be made of Manji Sahib Gurdwara, Ambala City; Sisganj Gurdwara, Ambala City. Badshahi Bagh Gurdwara, Ambala City; Panjokhra Sahib Gurdwara, Panjokhra; Lakhnaur Sahib Gurdwara, Lakhnaur Sahib (Ambala tehsil).

Muslims

The Muslims of the district believe in on god and their religion enjoins five duties upon them. These are recitation of kalma (an expression of faith in god and the prophet Mohammed),the offering of namaz five times a day preferably in a mosque, roza, hajj to Mecca and contributions in cash and kind for charitable purposes.Many Muslims in the district have faith in a number of saints and hold annual urs at their tombs and some off the important places in this respect are the shrines of shah Kumaish at Sadhura, Lakhi Shah Darvesh and Tawakkul Shah at Ambala. It is noteworthy that these commemorative gatherings are also attended by Hindus in large number.

Jains

The Jains are mostly Aggarwals who have adopted the Jain faith. They worship Mahavira and the Triathankras. They celebrate Mahavir Jayanti, the birth anniversary of Lord Mahavira. The celebrations of Mahavira Jayanti at Sadhura and Ambala is well known.

Christians

The Christians consider the Bible as their holy book. They observe Easter, Chrismtas and new Year's day. The place of their worship is church. The Important church in the district are located at Ambala Cantoment .







Festival and Fairs

The common festivals celebrated by the Hindus are Dussehra, Diwali, Holi and Janam Ashtami. The minor festivals are Shivratri, Gugga Naumi,Raksha Bandhan, Durga Ashtami, Lohri and sankranti. A few festivals like Karwa Chauth , Nirjala Ekadshi and Hoee are celebrated by women. The principal festivals are celebrated as in other part of the country.After Dusshera, a festivals known as Garbara Garbari is celebrated by the females and it continue for five days. The festivals is popular in the district but celebrated with more gaiety Naraingarh tehsil. It is a festivals of unmarried girls but married woman can also take part. The lamps are put in baked covers of earth with holes in them and the girls sing and dance with these lamps in their hands. The girls finish the celebration on the fifth day after Dussehra by throwing the lamps into the tanks.Bawan Dwadshi is another important religious festival celebrated in the district. Fairs dedicated to Vamna, an incarnation of Vishnu are held at Ambala on Bhadon Sudi Dwadshi (August-September) . The images of dieties from different temples are taken out in a procession.The devotees observe fast and take bath in a nearby scared river of tank . Besides, festivals of different religious groups like Guru Nanak Gurparb, Mahavir Jayanti, Id-ul-fitr, Id-ul-Zuha, Muharram, Guru Ravidas Jayanti, Balmiki Jaynti, Christmas and Easter are celebrated with great enthusiam.

Mela Markandya

A fair dedicated to Rishi Markandya is held at Haryoli, Ambala tehsil on Asoj Purnmashi (September-october). The devotees worship in the temple dedicated to Rishi Markandya and take bath in the river Markanda.

Urs Harzrat Lakhi Shah Or Mela Pankha

A religious fair in the memory of Taj-ud-din-Chisti who later on came to be known as Hazarat Lakhi Shah is held at Ambala in the month of June at the tomb of Hazart. A procession is taken out and the devotees recite verses from the Koran, make offerings of sweets, fruits,chaddar (sheets of cloth) and fans. The qawalis are sung in praise of the saint.





Social Life

Social groups

The important social groups in the district are rajputs, jats, Sainis, Gujjars, Kanets, Kolis, Brahmans, Aroras, Aggarwals, Chamars and Balmikis.

Rajputs

The Rajputs one of the important agricultral community, are scattered all over the district. Their concentration, however is mostly in Nariangarh and Ambala tehsils. Their women do not work in the feilds. A large percentage of Rajputs are Chauhans.

Jats

The Jats are predominantly an agricultural community of the district. A small percentage of Jats are sikhs. They are on the whole study and hard working and have maintianed their reputation for industry, thrift and agricultural efficiency.

Sainis

The Sainis are widely scattered all over the district but their concentration is in Naraigarh tehsil. The Sainis are sturdy cultivators and manage to thrive on their small land holdings.

Gujjars

The Gujjars occupy small villages in the tract lying immediately underneath the Shiwaliks in Naraingarh. They are good cultiavators and also rear goats, sheep and cattle on the grazing land in the hills. The houses of a Gujjar are distinguished by their typical setting .One can distinguish a Gujjar settlement which has a central yard and every individual house opens in the yard. The Gujjar women and men can also be spotted from their dress.

Brahmans

The Brahmans are agriculturalist in a few village of Ambala and Naraiangarh tehsils. They cultivate their land themselves and are prosperous. Some Brahmins versed in astrology however, earn their livehood by practising astrology and preisthood.

Khatri and Aroras

The Khatri and Aroras migrated from Pakistan and most of them are shopkeepers and traders.

Aggarwals

They are a buisness community of the district. They are mainly concentrated in urban areas but a few of them also function in rural areas as money-lenders. A few of the Aggarwals own land in Jagadhri tahsil and employ agricultural labour for farming.

Chamars

The term Chamar is an occupational of the district. They are politically and socially concious and have made much progress after independence.

Balmikis

Balmikis were the scavengers and even now follow this profession in urban areas. In rural area,they are agricultural labourers and do not work as sweepers. They also rear pigs, goats, and sheep. They are now censcious of their social and political rights.

Inter-caste Relations

Though the caste system is losing its rigidity under the pressure of economic and social forces aided by liberal laws, it persists in the rural areas of the district. The Jats and Aroras are more liberal in inter-caste relations and this attitude is bond to influence the social behavior of other people. However, inter-dinning is only occasional and inter-caste marriages are not common.

Joint Family System

The Joint Family System which has been a distinguishing feature of Hindu society since time immemorial, is breaking up under the stress of the changed economic and social conditions. While it is more marked in urban areas, the bond of the joint family system is weakening even in the villages. The people there depend almost entirely on agricultural, the average holding gets smaller and smaller to support a joint family. It is therefore, inevitable that some members of the family should move out in search of service to the towns or elsewhere to supplement the family income. In this way migration of rural population to the towns in search of a living whether in business , industry , service or some form of labour-has vitally affected the structure of the joint family. Those who migrate to the towns get allured to modern amenities and try to settle down there with their families. They leave the farm to those members of the family who stay behind in the village.

Inheritance

According to the Hindu Succession Act 1956, sons and daughter, the mother and the widow along with other heris of the deceased, inheri t the intestate property simultaneously. A daughter has as good a claim to her father property as a son, provided the father does not debar her by law (in case of his self acquired property only.) However inspite of the right conferred by law, it appears to have become a general practice for the girls not to claim any part of the intestate property. In the absence of a brother, a girl may some time give her land to her near relatives, through in such case she usually retains her rights to property.

Marriage Customs and Murals

The Vedic system of marriage prevails among th Hindus. It is treated as scared and is governed buy traditional customs. As elsewhere, the marriage dates are mostly determined by astrological considerations. Marriage is an important event of one's life it is preceded by betrohal and a number of preliminaries and elaborate preprations.

Betrothal

The invitation is taken by the close relatives, brother of father of the girls (previously village barbar of Brahman used to perform such functions). If the offer is accepted and the result of the detailed discussion is satisfactory, the nata is settled. After this monetary gift is given to the boy by the girl's people .This is called rokna. After rokna the next ceremony to be performed is betrothal(sagai). when presents of money and gifts are given by the girl's parents to the boy and his relatives. The nature of this ceremony differs from caste to caste. For example amongs kanets of Morni area one or two kilos of gur is sent through the go-between to girls house and the cermony of sagai is completed.

Marraige preliminaries

Generally the data of marriage is fixed by consulting the horoscope of the boy and the girl. The bride's father sends a letter written on paper stained yellow, to the boy's father, which announces to him the data or lagan fixed for the wedding.Mandha ceremony is perfomed by the maternal uncle one day before the date fixed for the departure of the wedding party reaches in case of the bridegroom and the day on which party reaches in case of birde. Seven reeds put together are tied with seven not of munj rope. A peice of red string then taken and seven thuthis alternating with sohails or suparis are strung thereon. This string is tied to the middle of the reeds which are then fastened to a door or lintel. The maternal uncle in each case performs this ceremony and also brings the bhat, which consists of presents and necessarily includes the wedding suit for the bride or bridegroom.

Wedding

On the day when the baraat is to start, the boy is dressed in his wedding suit brought by his maternal uncle. The kangana or seven-knoted scared thread is tied on his right wrist on the first day of the ban ceremony. His head-dress consists of a crown or a crest over the turban and a sehra covering the face. The ceremony of ghurchari is then performed. The barbar leads the decorated mare with the bridegroom on its back, while women follow along singing customary songs befitting the occasion and the mother or aunt or an elderly woman with a utensil containing water. His sister puts her wrap over her right hand, and on its places rice which she filings at his crown as the bridegroom goes along. He goes and worships god of the homestead (khera) and other deities. Thereafter, the baraat, usually comprising the relatives and friends starts with music. In case the baraat is to go out-station then the ghurchari is performed a day earlier. If both the parties reside in the same place which frequently happens in a town, no managements for the resisdence of the baraat are necessary. If, on the other hand,the baraat comes from an out-station, it is recieved by the brideside usually at the prefixed venue, in the case of a town or on the outskirts of the village from the where the party is taken, sometimes in procession, to a dharamsala, or chopal or any other palce where arrangements have been made for the baraat to stay and to be entertained. In the evening, the baraat goes is procession, the boy on a mare, to the brides house where the barat is received by the people on the bride's side. The first cermony to be performed is called dhukao or milni when the boy's father and the girl's father embrance each other and the later gives a monertary gift to the former. The womenfolk along with bride wait at the door & jaimala is put by the bride around the neck of the bridegroom and vice versa. The baraatis and the bridegroom are then entertained to a sumptuous dinner with merriment and festivity. Thereafter, the key function starts. Scared texts are recited in sanskrit by the priest. The scared fire is lighted, the Brahman ties a corner of the girls wrap to a piece of cloth called patka and the couple takes round of the fire and this is called phera ceremony and consitutes the core of marriage. Phera is now recognised as one of the essential ceremonies under the Hindu Marriage Act. After this the Brahman formally asks whether he or she accepts the other, and is ready to perform duties towards each other, which are set forth in time honoured traditions and put forth in very impressive language full of similies and metaphors. The bridegroom and the bride then exchange places. Now follows the kanyadan-the so called formal bride-giving ceremony. The parents thus give away their daughter in marriage and usher her into the new world of grihastha. The ceremony is highly colourful, picturesque, and at times intersting also. There may, however be noticed minor variations among certain castes in the performance and observance of these ceremonies. Social mores and folk ways change like fashions. There was time when dancing girls were invited at the weddings, their songs and dances provided fun and frolic to the people, especially in the rural areas which had no other source of entertainment. The cinema has changed all this. The practice of inviting dancing parties has virtually gone out of fashion. In villages, gramophones fitted with loudspeakers have taken their place. A marriage in a village is a gala occasion and the entire community is regaled to popular tunes and song-hits of the film-music. In cities, marriage celebrations have virtually become standardised with the assistanceof specialised contractors. It is of interest to note the social change. Previously, the baraat used to stay at the bride's place for 3 days but things have changed under the stress of economic forces. Now the baraat returns the same or the next day. Anand Karaj prevails among the Sikhs. The distinction between Anand Karaj previals among the Sikhs. The distiction between Anand Karaj and the Vedic marriage is that in the former the bride and bridegroom instead of going round the fire, go round the holy Granth. Some extracts from the scared book are read and through they are originally meant to describe in a figurative way the union of human soul with the supreme Bieng, they are made to seem the purpose of sanctifying the union of the bride and the bridegroom. Marriage among Muslims is contracted with the usual Nikah ceremony performed by a Maulvi. Muslims in the district prefer marriage among their own castes.

Civil Marriages

These are performed under the special Marriage Act, 1954 and the Deputy Commissioner is the officer for solemanisation of civil marriages. People from urban areas are found interested in this type of marriage and even their number is negligible. Only 17 civil marriages were performed in the district during the period 1966 to 1977. Amongst the Hindus there were certain restrictions on marriage the most common being that no marriage could take place between families of the same village of where the gotra tallies eigther on the paternal or maternal side. The Hindu Marriage Act has removed the restrictions as far as marriage among families of the same gotra are concerned, but marriage among spindas are still prohibited. Among Rajputs, Brahmans and Koli' s only the parental gotra is left while the rest observe restriction of 3 to 4 gotra of paternal and maternal side. Inter-caste marriage are not socially approved although a few stray cases can be reported in the district.

Dowry System

The dowry system is prevalent everywhere. It is not much prevalent in the hilly areas of the district. It is a social evil and the dowry legislation of 1961 has not succeeded in achieving its object. The people follow the old custom, and if necessary, by-pass the law.

Widow Re-marriage

Karewa is a simple sort of marriage for windows. It is effected by the man throwing a red wrap over the women's head and putting wristlets (chura or churi) on her arm in presence of male and female members of the brother hood. Such a marriage generally does not take place within a year of the husband's death.

Widows who may not wish to re-marry, live on the property left by their husbands. In urban area however, the educated women take up some employment or engage themselves in some kind of paid or honorary social work.

Reet

Reet type of marriage, though on decline , is still in vogue in the Morni Hill area of Narayngarh tahsil. Reet literally means custom and a reet marriageis recognised by custom. It is never the first marriage in the case of a woman, though it can be so in the case of a man. It is however, only after her first regular marriage that reet may take place. The people who practice reet consider it a form of of marraige, which can be contracted by payment o a lumpsum of money to the former husband. No cermonies of a Hindu marriage are observed in it. The payment of a certain sum of money to her husband or her husbands heirs if widowed, is all that is required for it purposes. When this is done, the effected purchase becomes the better half and the legal partner in life of the buyer. Thus it is a divorce and marriage both rolled in one, it is a divorce to the first husband and marriage to the second in a single transaction.

Divorce

Divorce is not much prevalent. There is a general tendency to suffer hardship resulting from ill-matched marraiges. This is particualarly true of uneducated and conservative people. They prefer to lead a miserble life rater than to dissolve the marriage. Another practice has been to leave the girl with her parents and never recall her. However, with the coming into force the Hindu Marriage Act, 1955 a few cases of divorces are being instituted in the law courts.

Other Rituals and customs

Traditional customs are observed by the people at different stages of life. The old Hindu way of living as traught with many traditional sanskaras and rituals. In the course of time, these got worn out no longer in keeping with the changing times. Under the influence of modern education and new ideas their hold is loosening. Of a multitude of these customs, however a few are still observed though not with so much zeal and fervour. When a child is born the woman is segregated at once from the rest of the family. The roomin which confinement takes place is marked among Hindus by the hanging of a net of ropes in which a neem or mango twig is suspended. The woman is kept to herself for 11 days and she is attended by the midwife or some elderly lady of the family. On the 11th day the room is cleaned. Feast is given if the infant is boy. This is called the dasuthan ceremony. Name giving ceremony is also performed on this day. The Brahman performs havana and sprinkles the whole of the house with Ganga water. After this, the Brahman consult his patra (book concerning astronomy) and announces four names beginning with same letter. Of these, only one name is to be adopted. But the latest trend is not to adopt any of the names is to be adopted. But the latest trend is not to adopt any of the names announced by the Brahmanif it does not meet the liking of the parents . In such case , the first letter of the names announced by the Brahman is made a basis for adopting another name for the child. The Brahman recieves presnts for performing havana and naming the child. Among the Aroras, the Chola is an important cremonywhich is celebrated on the 15th or 17th day of the newly-born son when new clothes, consecrated by their Brahman, are worn. A feist is provided for friends and relatives.Among the Sikhs, on the 10th day the child and the mother are bathed and they are presented before the holy Granth. Path of the Granth is performed on that day. The family assembles and karah parshad (halwa or preparation of flour, ghi and sugar) is distributed. The child is named on that day. The Granth is opened at random and the first letter of the bani at which the Granth openes gives the first letter of the child's name. Almosts all the Hindus perform the mundan ceremony when the boy is a few year old. This ceremony is mostly performed at some religious place. If the ceremony is performed at home, his hair is cut and head shaved for the first time and freinds and relative are entertained to a feast.

Home Life

Villages

The villages of Ambala are generally built on mounds or higher grounds which were selected probably for safety or they possibly be existing on the ruins of older abadis which through centuries were submerged as a result of some naturals upheavels. In the Shiwalik hills the villages are located in parallel belts extending from the choe re-entrants up to the headwater slopes where the terraces disappear. At the outskirts of the villages are goharas, the pyramid like structure in which dung-cakes are stored. They form a conpicuous feature of the rural landscape. Of late, the provisions of pucca lanes with surface drains , school, dispensaries, culverts, link road, etc., have changed the social and economic life of the people in villages.

Dwellings, furniture and Untensils

Previously, most of the house in villages were kacha. The walls of these houses were of mud or clods of dry earth taken out of the pond's when they were dried up, or form the driedup and cracked fields. The roof of the houses (kotha) was also of mud; the beams which supported it and which principally made of sal wood rested partly on the mud walls and partly on upright supporting beams about six feet high. Across these lay smaller beams, and over these grass;lastly uponthe grass three inches of earth was laid. These kacha houses are now being rapidly replaced by pucca houses with a provision of hand pump in the courtyard these new houses have seprate kitchens and bath-rooms. With the spread of education and a growing outlook for better sanitation and health facilities, the villagers are changing the pattern of their houses. They now have a seprate cattle shed and also care for proper lighting and ventilation. The houses in a village consist of one to four rooms.The outer room or dahliz or baithak is used as a drawing room for the family and male members of the family sit there. It is often partly ocupied by cattle in winter. Beyond this is the yard (chauk) seprated from the streets by a wall, and in which the cattle are tied up this space is used by women and children. Round this are the rooms occupied by various members of the family. The kitchen is in the corner where chulla and hara are placed for cooking food..The furniture in the village consists of bedsteads, moorahs, peerhas(small stools) and chairs. A few houese in villages, of late, can also be seen furnished with sofa sets and other modern furniture.In urban areas chairs and tables are placed in the drawing room. The home well-to-do persons are tastefully furnished and decorated in a modern style. Sofa sets, wardrobes, tables,and chair of different description and other miscellanous items of furinture decorate the houses. Possesion of furniture is considered to be sign of social status and taste. The paucity of furniture in an average home is partly offset by ordinary framed pictures and calendars which are readily available. Urban influences has led villagers to go in for chairs, tables and better types of costs though on a modest scale. The untensils used in kitchen for cooking and eating purposes are large narrow-mouthed cauldrons (tokna-tokni) for storing water and cooking at feasts; smaller vessels of similar shape(baltoi) for ordinary cooking and carring water to the fields;(deghior patila for cooking and vegetables,still smaller ones (lota,gadwa, buggi) for keeping milk and water, some cups (kotra, kotri, channa) without handles; some tumbler- shaped drinking vessels; a large tray (thali); a larger tray for kneading dough(parat) ; a brass ladle (karchhi); a spatula for turning bread (Palta); a thin iron plate (tawa) for baking cakes, and some pairs of iron tongues (chimta),a fry-pan (karahi) and seive (chhalni), both of iron; iron bucket (balti) for drawing water from the well. The untensils are generally made of brass. some earthen pots are laso used fro boiling milk and for churning curd. Lately, the use of stainless steel and aluminium untensils is gaining popularity. The use of kerosene oil stoves of various kinds for cooking are popular in the towns. The dearth of firewood consequent upon the reckless cutting of forests in the recent past has also helped in popularising the use of kerosene oil stoves. The cooking gas stoves are also used in Ambala

Dress and Ornaments

The dress of the people in the district is simple. In rural areas men wear a shirt or kurta, chadra, tamba or dhoti and a pair of shoes. Pagri (turban) which was a part of the dress is now very rarely used and is worn by older generation or by the bridegroom on the wedding day. A chaddar, khes or blanket in cold weather is used as a wrap. An angochha (long handkerchief) is used occasionally. In urban areas people wear shirt, pants or payajamas. People both in urban and rural areas wear wollen sweaters and coats in winter. A complete suit of male clothes is called jora. Although in the recent past, men used to wear jewelleary, it is not in vogue now. However, a gold ring and gold chain is worn by many people in urban areas. The women in rural areas wear a shirt (jumper), salwar and chunni or chona i.e. headwear. The women prefer coloured clothes, cotton or silken. A Gujjar women can be known from her blue dresss, adorned generally by circular bits of looking glass. The women in urban areas wear (salwar- kameez and chunni) but they are shifiting their choice towards sari and blouse. In winter they wear sweaters and shawls. Chappals both in urban and rural areas are common footwear. High heel sandals are also used in urban areas. One also finds college and school going girls and working women wearing what they call mod dresses consisting of bell-button trousers with blouses. Women here as elsewhere are fond of jewellery. In village they wear the follwing ornaments as the occasion requires. They wear cahk, phul, kanda, bindi, tika, chand for head, balian, jumke, bhujlian, and karanphul for ear, nath, laung, tili for the nose, tandira or hansli, mala, hamel, kandhi, tigarda, chandan har or har for neck, taadan, bajuband for arms; churian, pachhelian,kangan or kare, pohnchi, mathiau, arsi, for hands; angoothi or chhalla for fingers and panjeb, jhanjaran, chhare for feet. These are usally made of silver and some times of gold.

Food

The simple food of the peole has little vareity. The number of meals varies according to seasons and the nature of work done by the people. The morning and evening meal of a farmer consists of three of four loaves of maki of bajra in winter and of wheat or wheat and gram mixed in summer. It is taken with saag, pluses, karahi, other vegetables and lassi (butter milk). Rice is eaten frequently. Salt, chillies and other spices are used commonly On festive occasion khir, halwa and other sweet dishes are prepared. .In urban areas, the food consists of articles like wheat flour, pulses, vegetables and karhi. The dishes are prepared in vegetable ghi which is now also used in the villages. People in villages and towns are generally vegetarians but meat eating has started finding favour with the new generation. Tabacco smoking is quite common in the district, and hookah is still prevalent in villages.So far as drink is concerned, tea as a stimulating drink has become popular with both urban and rural folk. Tea stalls are found in every town and all the big villages and even on the wayside. In summer months some people prefer to drink a glass of sherbat or lassi. Soft drink are becoming popular with younger people and are often served to guests at social ceremonies. Local country-made liquors is consumed in viallages. While whisky and other liquors are consumed in the urban areas. People mostly take strong drinks on festivals or ceremonies and not as general habit.

Community Life

As elsewhere, the community life is somewhat more effectively organised in villages than in towns. The limited amenities and amusement of villages life are equally shared by all of them and require their combined attention. The communiuty devolpment programmes have given fillip to comunity activities of various kinds and the panchayats have also become a nucleus of community activities.

Folk Culture

Folk culture is reflected in folk songs, dances and theatre. With fast changing conditions ,urban life is slowly but surely making an in road into rural life taking away some of its inherent beauty and cultural wealth. The recorded film songs is an onslaugth on the song of the villages ragi and the radio seeks to replace the groups festivals of folk-songs and dances. However, folk culture still continues to enliven the countryside which hums with songs and dances on festivals and other numerous occasions.folk-Son



Folk Song

Folk songs represents the culture of an area. These songs with their burden of love and labour have a peculiar charm of their own. These express hopes, aspirations, love-longing, joys and sorrows of the rural people. We also hear about the changing seasons, the tinkling of bells of the cattle returning home at sun-set and the emotional outbursts of married couples on their unoin and separation.There is variety of folk- songs, each connected with a particular occasion. Some of these are connected with nautre, sung in differnt seasons. The month of Sarvana (july-August) brings ecstasy in its wake. Teej or Harayli Teej is the main festival of Sarvana. It is observed throughout the district but it is not as popular as in oher districts of Haryana. A specimen of Teej song sung in a part of Ambala district are distinctly different from those sung in other parts of Haryana.The Garbara Garbari festival's is celebrated with more gusto in the district and folks songs are sung on the occasion. The songs are normally accompanied by dances. A married womans feelings finds expression in the song when she wants to accompany her husband, while he is going to his duty. The folk-songs are essentially lyrics giving a glimpse into the women's heart. These describe a girl's longing for love and marriage, her initial inhabitations, her usual apperhensions, her emotional recreation to the dreary lot in a stranger's house complaints form the young wife regarding the monotony of domestic life and the various types of odd work which she is compelled to do, pangs of child birth, etc. Love songs are the most common since love in its varied froms provides numerous themes. The socio-economic aspects too sometimes find expression. Indeed, it is the village women who has preserved the tradition of folklore.

Folk Dances

Folk dancing, is an outburst of singing emotions. The celebraitons of Garbara-Garbari in Narayngarh tehsils of the district is a significant festivals and its celebration continues for five days after Dusshera. The girls congregate in the village in an open space and sing and dance. Their meledious sound spreads through the village and resounds in its gaiety.

vikas bhatheja said...

Economic Trends

[Livelihood Pattern] [Economic Trends] [Worker By Age Group]

[Educational Level Of Workers]

[Employment Situation]

[Employment Exchange] [Prices And Wages]





Livelihood Pattern

Of the total population of 797480 persons in the Ambala district, 222879 were engaged in some kind of economic activity according to 1991 census. Thus workers were 27.95 percent of the total population of the district as against 26.4 percent for the state as a whole. The district ranked third as regards the labour participation rate. Of the total workers 220879 (2,09,601 males and 13,478 females), i.e.65.56 percent were living in rural areas ,34.39 percent lived in urban areas. In the working population , males (95.04 percent) predominated the females (6.1 percent). On the basis of economic activities pursued, the working population in the district has been classified into nine categories as shown in the table below.



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Industrial Category Number of workers

------------------------------------

Male Famale Total

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

1. Cultivators 4455 304 47459

2. Agricultural Labourers 41672 1145 42817

3. Livestock,forestry,fishing 2139 94 2233

hunting,plantation,orchards

and allied activities

4. Mining and Quarrying --- -- ---

5. Manufacturing

a) Household industry 4862 307 5169

b) Other than household 16898 676 17574

Industry

6. Construction 8420 657 9077

7. Trade and Commerce 25171 662 25833

8. Transport, Storage and 9013 185 9198

Communications

9. Other services 53613 7510 61127

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Total 209247 11540 220787

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Economic Trends

The above table indicates that in 1991,the cultivators and agricultural labourers constituted as much as 41.0 percent of the total working population. Though both these categories taken together formed only 11.4 percent of the total population of the district; yet including their dependents, it can be said that a sizeable section of the population of the district was dependent directly or indirectly on agriculture. The number of male cultivators and agricultural labourers far exceeded the females.

The next important source of livelihood in the district was other services engaging 7.7 per cent of the total population and 41.02 percent of the working population. The proportion of males in this category of workers was much higher than of females both in rural and urban areas.

Persons engaged in manufacturing & household industry constituted 2.9 percent of the total population and 1O.3 percent of the working population. The proportion of female workers was very low in urban as well as rural areas.

Trade and commerce provided livelihood to 3.2 Percent of the total population and 10 percent of the working population. Transport, storage and communications provided employment to l.2 percent of the total population and 4.2 percent of the working population. The percentages of the persons getting their livelihood from household. industry ; construction; and livestock, forestry, plantation, etc., were 0.2 of the total population and 1.01 of the working population respectively.

As against 58.7 percent in the state 42.0 percent of the working population was engaged in agricultural and allied pursuits in the district. The main concentration of such workers was in rural areas, the number in urban areas being negligible. The same remark applies to household industrial workers. In urban areas the working population was primarily engaged in manufacturing (other than household industry), trade and commerce transport and construction and other services.

The following table brings out the behavior of the working force in primary, secondary and tertiary sectors in the district and in the state as a whole according to 1991 Census. The primary sector includes cultivators, agricultural labourers and workers engaged in livestock, forestry, fishing, hunting, plantation, orchards and allied activities; the secondary sector includes workers engaged in mining and quarrying, household industry, manufacturing and construction and the tertiary sector includes workers engaged in trade and Commerce, Transport, storage and other services :

__________________________________________________

Sector Ambala District Haryana

---------------------- ------------------------

Number Percentage Number Percentage

to total to total

workers workers __________________________________________________

Primary 92809 42.04 2771028 58.72

Secondary 31820 14.41 627654 13.30

Tertiary 96158 43.55 1320044 27.98

__________________________________________________

Total 220787 100.00 4718726 100.00

__________________________________________________

An analysis of the above table reveals that the sectoral behavior of the working force in the Ambala district can be easily distinguished from that of the state as a whole. While about seven-tenth of the working population , in the state was engaged in primary activities, only one-half of the working population was engaged in such activities in the district. Thus the share of the primary sector in the working force of the district was much less than that of the state. On the other hand working force in primary and tertiary activities is almost the same whereas labour employed in secondary sector is negligible. On the basis of sectoral behavior of the working force it can, therefore, be concluded that the economy of the Ambala district is more progressive than that of the state as a whole. Unlike .many other district of the state, agriculture is not the only mainstay in the district.



Workers By Age-Groups

According to the 1971 Census, the district had only 4.25 per cent of workers in the age group of 0-14, 36.61 percent in the age-group of 15-24, 49.48 percent in the age-group of 30-59 and 9.57 percent in the age-group of 60 year and above. Low percent of workers in the age-group of 0-14 indicate that the problem of child labour in the district was not serious. Nearly one-half of the workers were in the age group of 30-59.




Educational level Of Worker

As regards the educational level of workers in urban areas , literate and illiterate existed side by side in all industrial categories except mining and quarrying as no worker was reported to be engaged in such activities in the urban areas. Literate women workers were conspicuously absent in the field of agricultural labourers and construction. Male workers with primary middle, matriculation or higher secondary qualification, were found in all categories. Male workers, having a technical diploma not equal to a degree, were found in manufacturing ; construction, trade and commerce, transport, storage and communication and other services ; while those having a non-technical diploma not equal to a degree, were available only in manufacturing (other than household industry), trade and commerce and other services. Male workers possessing a university or post-graduate degree other than in technical subjects were found in all categories except in that of agricultural labourers. Similarly, male workers with technical degree or diploma equal to a university or postgraduate degree were found in all industrial categories except agricultural labourers. In rural areas, literate and male workers with some level of literacy were found in all the categories, while female literate workers were found as cultivators, agricultural labourers, in manufacturing and other services. Of the educated, large number of them in all categories were educated only upto primary level. Only a few possessed a university degree or any type of technical diploma or certificate.


Employment Situation

Out of the total population of 7,97,480 in the district, only 27.68 percent formed the working force, of which11.64 percent of the total population were engaged in agricultural and allied pursuits and the remaining16.05 percent in other pursuits. In the absence of other data regarding unemployment, the idea of employment situation can only be gathered from the working of employment exchanges in the district.


Employment Exchanges

With a view to making an assessment of manpower requirement of professional, scientific, skilled, and technical workers, and to determine more correctly the type of personnel in short supply, as also to find out new employment opportunities, the State Directorate of Employment maintains district-wise records of persons seeking employment. The employment exchanges in the districts register the names and qualifications of the unemployed persons seeking work. At first a Regional Employment Exchange was established at Ambala in 1945 to provide re-employment to ex-servicemen. Later in 1962, it was converted into the District Employment Exchange. This exchange was further upgraded to Divisional Employment Exchange in 1972 . Since then, it has been exercising control over the employment exchanges in Ambala, Karnal and Kurukshetra districts. With the enforcement of the employment exchange (compulsory notification of vacancies) Act,1959, in June, 1960 establishment in the public sector and also those employing 25 or more persons in the private sector, have to notify their vacancies to the employment exchange before these are filled.


Prices And Wages

Prices

Some idea about the price trends prevailing in the Ambala district in the second half of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century can be had from table . It gives retail prices of various commodities from 1861-62 to 1912. The prices for various commodities rose considerably over the period. The rupee during 1861-62 to 1865-66 could fetch a person, 23 seers and 4 chhittanks of wheat or 31 seers and 14 chittanks of gram.

The consumers prices index of working class was introduced from june,1991-92 with 1988-1989 as the base year . Accordingly a consumer price index of selected commodities for rural areas in Haryana given as under:

_____________________________________________________

Year Food General

______________________________________________________

1991-92 145 143

1992-93 160 158

1993-94 170 169

1994-95 185 184

1995-96 188 198

1996-97 226 222

1997-98 245 244

1998-99 278 275

1999-2000 273 276

_____________________________________________________

Now, the practice of grazing of birds is not in practice as the animals are not in a large number. Moreover, the forest and grazing lands have been occupied by the people for agricultural purposes. The agricultural prices are collected from the selected cities of the district. At present village Shahpur is selected for the wage collection.

Data in the following table is of year - 2000

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Ploughing Sowing Weeding Harvesting Picking Other Black Carpenter

of Cotton Agri. -Smith

Operations

------------------------------------------------------------------------------

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------

80.00 80.00 80.00 80.00 ----- 80.00 150..0 150.00

------------------------------------------------------------------------------

I. The Wages are the average of 12 months .

II. The Wages rates are for a normal working day of eight hours.

III The Wages include payment in cash and cash equivalent of commodities paid in kind.



Prior to the formation of Haryana in 1966 , there were 13 blocks in the then Ambala district. On the formation of Haryana in 1966, 4 blocks Ropar, Kharar, Chamkor Sahib and Sailba Majri remained in Punjab while Nalagarh block was transfered to Himachal Pradesh. The present Ambala district has 4 blocks Naraingarh, Barara, Ambala and Shahzadpur.

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Name of Block No. of Villages No. of Panchayats Population

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Ambala 177 143 1,81891

Barara 137 123 1,82615

Narayangarh 95 83 88,006

Shahzadpur 82 62 78072

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The community Development Programme in the district has embraced multifarious fields like distribution of chemical fertilizers among the farmers, reclamation of land, pavement of lanes, inoculation/vaccination of animals. Achievements in these programmes make a great impact on the community life in the villages. It has helped to bring significant changes in their life pattern and thinking. Villagers have shed their earlier opposition to modern techniques of agriculture. They now unreservedly take advantage of the facilities provided by the development institutions and are generally more actively participating in the co-operative, movement, small saving, health and sanitation, cattle development and similar other activities.

vikas bhatheja said...

BASIC- STATISTICS

Education
Population
Workers
Agriculture

Co-operation
Health
Animal Husbandry
Industry

Roadways
Employment
Excise & Taxation
Commercial Bank

Roads
Electricity
Social Welfare
Miscellaneous





Education



Education 1999-2000

No. of Colleges
Number
18

Govt.
Number
2

Private
Number
16

Total Students
Number
15093

S.C. Students
Number
1377

No. of S.R. Sec./High School
Number
180

Govt.
Number
115

Private
Number
65

Students
Number
98768

No. of Middle Schools
Number
43

Govt.
Number
37

Private
Number
6

Students
Number
4353

No. of Primary Schools
Number
558

Govt.
Number
503

Private
Number
55

Students
Number
56686



Population




Total
Male
Female

Total
Number
797480
418981
378499

Rural
Number
511671
272439
239232

Urban
Number
285809
146542
139267




Population in the Age Group0-6 year



Total
Male
Female

Total
Number
131210
69539
61671

Rural
Number
86825
46127
40698

Urban
Number
44385
23412
20975




Population after deduction of 0-6 year



Total
Male
Female

Total
Number
666270
349442
316828

Rural
Number
424846
226312
198534

Urban
Number
241424
123130
118294




S.C Population



Total
Male
Female

Total
Number
2008180
107344
93466

Rural
Number
161752
86783
74969

Urban
Number
39058
20561
18497




Town wise population



Total
Male
Female

Ambala City
Number
119338
61852
57486

Ambala Cantt
Number
49017
23483
25534

Ambala Sadar
Number
90872
47309
43563

Naraingarh
Number
13832
7224
6608

Babyal (cenus town)
Number
12750
6674
6076

Total
Number
285809
146542
139267




Literate Population



Total
Male
Female

Total
Number
444314
263925
180389

Rural
Number
251156
158387
92769

Urban
Number
193158
105538
87620




S.C. Literate Population



Total
Male
Female

Total
Number
104788
68631
36157

Rural
Number
80493
53740
26753

Urban
Number
24295
14891
9404




Households

Total
Number
132366

Rural
Number
77778

Urban
Number
54588




Density of Population Sex Ratio

Total
Number
538
903

Rural
Number
360
878

Urban
Number
4266
950




Estimated Population (1999-2000)
Number
955000




Residential Houses

Total
Number
126767

Rural
Number
76165

Urban
Number
50602




Workers

Total Workers



Total
Male
Female

Total
Number
220787
209247
11540

Rural
Number
144817
140542
4275

Urban
Number
75970
68705
7265




Marginal Workers



Total
Male
Female

Total
Number
47759
47455
304

Rural
Number
46225
45983
242

Urban
Number
1534
1472
62



Non-Workers



Total
Male
Female

Total
Number
574601
209580
365021

Rural
Number
365308
131794
233514

Urban
Number
209293
77786
131507





Agriculture(Hectares000)



Total Area
Hect.(000)
148.6

Net Area sown
Hect.(000)
117.3

Area sown more than once
Hect.(000)
77.8

Total cropped Area
Hect.(000)
195.2



No.of Tubewells 1999-2000
Number
204.82




Major crops (Area/Production/Yield 1999-2000)




Area (Hect.(000)
Production Tons. (000)
Yield (Kgs/Hect.)

a>Wheat
N.A.
N.A.
N.A.

b>Rice
73.0
209.0
8863.0

c>Maize
6.0
14.0
2315.0

d>Sugar-Cane(Gur)
N.A.
N.A.
N.A.




Co-operative Society 1999-2000


No. of all type of societies
Number
871

Total Members
Number
212224

Share Capital(Rs.in Crore)
Number
21.79

No. of Societies per Lac of Population
Number
87




Technical Institute 1999-2000


Polytechnic
Number
2

I.T.I
Number
3





Health 1999-2000


Gen.Hospital
Number
3

Police Hospital
Number
1

T.B. Hospital
Number
1

Primary Health Center
Number
12

Community Health Center
Number
3

Sub Center
Number
100

ESI/CD. Dispensaries
Number
3

Urban Dispensaries
Number
1




Animal Husbandry 1999-2000


Civil Veterinary Hospital
Number
27

Artificial Insemination Center
Number
4

Civil Veterinary Dispensaries
Number
30

Stockmen Centers
Number
63

Sheep wool Extension Center
Number
1

Poultry Cum Piggery Center
Number
2




Industry 1999-2000



No. of Registered Factories
Number


1.U/S 2m(1)
Number
320

2.U/S 2m(11)
Number
7

3.U/S85 with power
Number
63

Total
Number
390

Estimate No. of Worker Employed
Number
14054


Roadways 1999-2000



No. of Depots/Sub Depots
Number
2

No. of Buses
Number
242




Employment 1999-2000


No. of Employment Exchange
Number
5

No. of Person Registered
Number


Matric
Number
17636

High Secondary
Number
3628

Graduate
Number
3833

Post Graduate
Number
739

Others
Number
32256

Total
Number
58092



Excise & Taxation 1999-2000


No. of
Assesses

Tax Realised

Under H.G.S.T.ACT
7764
(Crore)
225.13

Under C.S.T.ACT
7764
(Crore)
24.16



Commercial Banks 1999-2000


Central Co-operative Bank
Number
14

Pry.Agri.Rural Dev.Bank
Number
3

Commercial Bank
Number
93

Total
Number
110

Total Deposits(Rs.in Crore)
Number
1436

Total Loans
Number
546






Roads

Roads 1999-2000

Matalled roads(in K.M.)
574

Unmatalles roads(in K.M.)
28





Electricity 1999-2000


No. of Connection
Number
155479

Domestic
Number
116268

Commercial
Number
25885

Industrial
Number
2854

Public Lighting
Number
354

Agriculture
Number
10101

Bulk
Number
17




Social Welfare


No. of I.C.D.S. Blocks

Total
Number
4

Rural
Number
3

Urban
Number
1




Miscellaneous


Parliament/Vidhan Sabha Seats

Parliament Seat
Number
1

Vidhan Sabha Seats
Number
5

Electorate(000)
Number
554975

vikas bhatheja said...

Ambala
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Bharat (India) >> Haryana >> Government >> Districts >> Ambala

The district headquarter is situated in Ambala City. Other towns are Ambala Cantt., Barara, Naggal, Mulana, Saha and Shahzadpur. The total area of Ambala district is 1569 sq km and its population is 11,06,000. It is famous for its big army cantonment, air force base and a very busy railway junction.

There are a number of stories regarding the name 'Ambala'. According to one, this town was founded in the 14th century by one Amba Rajput. According to another the town is named after the Goddess Bhawani Amba. Yet another stories claims that the town was originally called Amb Wala (place of Mangoes), and over time this got corrupted into the present name of Ambala.

In 1841, after an outbreak of malaria, the British abandoned the cantonment at Karnal. In its place a large cantonment was founded in Ambala in 1843. Ambala district is famous for its industries, especially that of scientific instruments, metal casting, kitchen mixer grinders and submersible motor pumps.

Ambala lies on the North-Eastern edge of Haryana between 27-39"-45' North latitude and 74-33"-53' to 76-36"-52' East longitude. It is bounded by the district Yamunanagar to the South-East. To its South lies Kurukshetra district while in its west is situated Patiala and Ropar districts of Punjab and Chandigarh (UT). Sirmaur districts of Himachal Pradesh bounds the district in the North-East. The height from the sea level is 900 feet. The district is mainly drained by the following non-perennial streams:

1. The Markanda & its tributaries
2. The Dangri (Tangri) & its tributaries
3. The Ghagghar & its tributaries

The Markanda drains the southern slopes of Dharti Dhar range (Himachal Pradesh), cuts through the Shivalik hills and enters Ambala district. The Markanda and the Dangri streams ultimately drain into the Ghagghar river beyond the territory of the district. The Ghagghar along with its tributaries however constitutes an inland drainage system.

There are many shrines in and around Ambala City. There is a temple, Bhawani Amba, named after the goddess Bhawani. The Badshahi Bag Gurdwara, Sis Ganj Gurdwara, Manji Sahib Gurdwara, Sangat Sahib Gurdwara are the historical gurdwaras here. These are associated with Guru Gobind Singh, Guru Tegh Bahadur and Guru Hargobind respectively.

vikas bhatheja said...

THE HARYANA MUNICIPAL ACT,1973(HARYANA ACT NO.24 0F 1973) -RECIEVED THE ASSENT OF THEPRESIDENT OF INDIA ON THE 24 TH OF JUNE,1973 AND WAS FIRST PUBLISHED IN HARYANA GOVT. GAZETTE(EXTRAORDINARY) ON JULY 2,1973. AN ACT TO CONSOLIDATE AND AMEND THE LAW RELATING TO MUNICIPALITIES IN THE STATE OF HARYANA. BE IT ENACTEDBY THE LEGISLATURE OF THE STATE OF HARYANA IN THE 24TH YEAR OF REPUBLIC OF INDIA. SHORT TITLE EXTENT & COMMENCEMENT- (1)THIS ACT MAY BE CALLED THE HARYANA MUNICIPAL ACT,1973.(2)IT EXTENDS TO THE WHOLE OF THE STATE OF HARYANA.(3)IT SHALL COME INTO FORCE ON SUCH DATE AS THE STATE GOVT.MAY,BY NOTIFICATION,APPOINT